“Sentinel of Liberty”: Captain America on the Home Front in WWII | UT Research Showcase

Carolyn McNamara
The US and Second World War

In Captain America Comics no. 1, two servicemen approach President Roosevelt with misgivings about the war. Roosevelt responds, “ What would you suggest, gentlemen ? A character out of the comedian books ? ” 1 Captain America made his inaugural appearance equitable months before America ’ s entrance into the second World War. The average boy-turned-superhero takes on Hitler in the first issue, leaving no question as to where his allegiance lies. While Captain America reflects a nationally tide in nationalism on the eve of war, there are subtle forces at work that shape the make and message of these comics. Race, engineering, Great Depression ideals, and patriotism all come into dally in Captain America Comics, much revealing the black english of wartime patriotism .
Jack Kirby and Joe Simon created Captain America in 1940. Their backgrounds shaped the superhero ’ second message. Jack Kirby was born in 1917 in New York ’ s Lower East Side.2 A second-generation Austrian immigrant of jewish descent, “ Jacob Kurtzburg ” Kirby by and by changed his name to Jack Kirby because, as he put it, he “ wanted to be an American. ” His destitute neighborhood was filled with ferocity, much of which would subsequently fill the pages of his amusing books. Fights broke out everywhere. In one interview, he reminisced about one particular “ climb-out fight. ” “ A climb-out competitiveness, ” he recalled, “ is where you climb a building. You climb open fire escapes. You climb to the top of the build. You fight on the roof, and you fight all the way down again. ” Kirby besides encountered anti-semitism, which had the dry effect of making him feel not bitter but grateful that America was a home where “ people of all different backgrounds had to live together. ” 3 Kirby ’ s love for american diversity and his jewish inheritance late motivated him to draw a patriotic superhero who would take on the greatest anti-semite of all prison term, Adolf Hitler4 .
Like Kirby, Joe Simon grew up in the Lower East Side and was the son of a poor jewish immigrant.5 The two men lived across the street from each other, and both had fathers who worked as tailors.6 Simon attended university and worked on the art staffs of a few newspapers before taking a job at Fox Comics where Kirby besides worked. Simon recognized Kirby ’ s aesthetic endowment immediately, so when Kirby asked him if he were interest in working on some english projects, Simon jumped at the find. Simon recalled, “ Jack had a great dash for comics. He could take an ordinary script and make it come alive with his dramatic interpretation. I would write the handwriting on the [ example ] boards as we went along, sketch in rough layouts and notations, and Jack would follow up by doing more accurate penciling. ” 7

A few months into their collaboration, Joe Simon conceived of the estimate of a star-spangled superhero who would fight for America against Hitler himself. “ Captain America was created for a time that needed baronial figures, ” Kirby once said. “ We weren ’ thyroxine at war however, but everyone knew it was coming. That ’ south why Captain America was born ; America needed a superpatriot. ” 8 Simon alike felt that Americans should enter the war even though most Americans opposed intervention in what was a european conflict. When asked about his motivations for creating Captain America, Simon explained, “ …opponents to the war were all quite well organized. We wanted to have our say too. ” 9 Simon and Kirby believed that the best way to have their say was through comedian books because, as Kirby put it, “ Comics is [ sic ] an american form of art that anyone can do with a pencil and paper. ” 10 The amusing koran they created would become one of the most popular of the war years .
The first topic of Captain America Comics appeared in March of 1941, nine months before the United States entered the World War. Isolationist sentiment still dominated populace opinion but not the cover of issue no. 1. It features Captain America punching Hitler square in the jaw as nazi soldiers fire at him from all sides. The history opens on a group of Nazi saboteurs bended on destroying american english factories in order to thwart the war attempt. When President Roosevelt learns of the sabotage, he tells the report officials of a possible solution, one of the “ topmost secrecy. ” 11 Roosevelt leads the officials to a heavy guarded lab where they meet a delicate young valet named Steve Rogers. Steve is approached by the steer scientist, told that he is “ about to become one of America ’ s saviors, ” and injected with a “ foreign seething liquid. ” A heaven-sent transformation results. Steve grows grandiloquent, stronger, and bright. He is now, readers learn, “ The first gear of a corps of super-agents whose mental and physical will make them a terror to spies and saboteurs. ” 12 As it turns out, Hitler ’ second Gestapo has infiltrated the testing ground and open burn. Steve defeats the Nazis easily.13 once a scraggy male child unfit for service, Steve Rogers is now Captain America, “ a symbol of courage to millions of Americans. ” He and his young buddy Bucky invite readers to join them on future adventures.14
Captain of America Issue No. 1

In the first base issue, Kirby and Simon gave Captain America characteristics that set him apart from other popular superheroes and made him accessible to readers. First, unlike Superman or Batman, Steve Rogers was neither born with superhuman powers nor successor to a superintendent luck. In fact, he was so weak that he failed his physical and was unable to enlist. Steve may have transformed into a full-bodied superhero, but he besides knew what it was like to be powerless, a find that credibly would have resonated with many young readers.15 Second, Kirby ’ south vivid drawings involve the subscriber in the narrative. Captain America much violates the boundaries of his panel frame, about leaping from the page to the adjacent scene.16 Captain America besides looks at and speaks immediately to the reviewer and therefore breaks the familiar fourthly wall of the form .
ultimately, Kirby and Simon say nothing approximately Captain America ’ s ethnicity. Steve Rogers is phenotypically white, but unlike Superman or Tarzan, his cultural origins play no separate in his backstory. By masking Captain America ’ randomness ethnicity, Kirby and Simon suggest that patriotism has no national lineage in America.17
Captain America and his fellow superheroes provoked a backlash. Sterling North, literary editor program of the Chicago Daily News, joined the critical choir, calling comics crude and a risk to children ’ mho sensibilities, condemning parents who allowed their children to read comics, and labeling amusing book publishers “ completely immoral. ” 18 Isolationist groups such as the American First Committee and the german american Bund opposed Captain America ’ s interventionist message, and went so army for the liberation of rwanda as to harass Kirby and Simon outside their studio apartment in the McGraw-Hill building.19 As Simon recalled, “ …we got a fortune of…threatening letters and hate mail. Some people very opposed what Cap stood for. ” The creators were undeterred, and, in Simon ’ sulfur words, “ felt very good about making a political statement…and taking a point of view against Nazism. ” 20 Their resist would face modern challenges with the attack of the war .
The United States entered World War II in December of 1941, and the comic reserve industry mobilized with the perch of the area. The Office of War Information issued directives to news program outlets and suppliers of democratic culture, asking them to raise America morale by, for case, incorporating “ the phrase ‘ end of the war is in sight ’ …as frequently as possible. ” 21 equal comedian book publishers took advantage of Captain America ’ sulfur success by filling newsstands with their own chauvinistic superheroes, including Uncle Sam, the Star-Spangled Kid, and even Miss America.22 The government rationed publishers ’ wallpaper by reducing the allotment given to publishers by 15 to 20 percent.23 Captain America tied lost his creators to military service. In 1943 Joe Simon volunteered for the United States Coast Guard. That lapp year, Kirby was stationed in the Fifth Division, Third Army, and served under General Patton on the European front.24 The ferociousness Kirby saw in war differed from the violence of the lower East Side, and like those earlier experiences, late manifested itself in his comics. In an interview with The New Nostalgia Journal, Kirby justified his use of ferocity, explaining, “ I used to walk around and watch the all in bodies in the field…I feel what I ’ m doing in my comics is crimson, but my kind of violence…violence, basic raw violence in which ferocity is inflicted in a mindless awful way, I can ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate see. ” 25 As the war progressed and Captain America Comics kept filling newsstands, the hero developed his message on ferocity, patriotism, and what it meant to be an american .
Captain America cursorily became Marvel ’ s best-selling comic and most popular comic script quality. Marvel sold approximately a million copies of Captain America Comics per calendar month throughout the war, a goodly chuck of the roughly 15 million comic books being sold each month.26 Comic books even accompanied the troops oversea. The New York Times estimated that one fourthly of the magazines read by servicemen were amusing books.27 In 1944, 41 percentage of men between the ages of eighteen and thirty read more than six amusing books a calendar month. Forty-four percentage of those in training camps read more than six amusing books a calendar month while 13 percentage read comic books occasionally.28 The economy boomed and parents, nowadays with income to spare, were last able to give their children what the capital Depression had denied them. Those children much spent their money on amusing books.29
Captain America Comics retain theme distinctive to Great depression democratic culture. During the Great Depression, amusing books frequently depicted crusades against corporate avarice and fraudulence. The heroes of these comics fought against what Roosevelt called “ economic royalists. ” 30 When he was not fighting Nazis, Captain America much engaged in similar battles against selfishness and imposter. In “ The Case of the Fake Money Fiends, ” Cap dresses up as a small township farmer in decree to track down a local throng of counterfeiters.31 “ The Return of the Red Skull ” features two “ hard faced thugs ” who dress up as Bucky and Captain America to trick the public into paying to see them. finally, the Red Skull finds the superhero impersonators and, mistaking them for the genuine pair, hangs, them. The fraud are neither salvage nor mourn, exhibiting a miss of sympathy for anyone who would cheat a mate american out of a dollar.32 The surprise villain of “ The Riddle of the Red Skull ” is Mister Naxon, the point of a large aircraft organization who kills significant american officials in exchange for the Nazis ’ promise to make him the Greater Reich ’ s Post Minister of all american industry.33 These tales reinforce the New Deal assumption that unsupervised, unregulated clientele will become a crooked menace.34
Sentinels of Liberty

Children made up a large dowry of Captain America ’ s readership. For the youthful boys and girls of WWII, Steve Rogers was the materialization of whatever penis of their families who had been sent oversea. Steve ’ sulfur heroics as Captain America provided a picture of war and soldiers that allowed these kids to imagine their love ones fighting valiantly, very much alert. Captain America Comics tied gave them their own function to play in the war attempt by portraying them as brave defenders of the fatherland. In “ The Killers of the Bund, ” Bucky assembles his young friends and tasks them with locating the german-american Bund ’ south secret hideouts. The Sentinels are shown listening at windows, on watch for traitors to the american cause.35 Pages advertising entrance into Captain America ’ s fan golf club, known as the “ Sentinels of Liberty, ” were featured in about every topic of Captain America Comics. These young readers had money to spend on the golf club ’ s membership cards and badges. An April 1944 census survey revealed that 20 percentage of schoolboys between fourteen and fifteen years of senesce had jobs and that 40 percentage of those between sixteen and seventeen years of old age did as well.36 Kirby and Simon were not just catering to new readers for their money. At the end of “ Captain America Battles the Camera Fiend and His Darts of Doom, ” the Captain looks directly at the reader and says, “ All boys and girls are Sentinels of Liberty whether they wear the badge or not. America is safe while its boys and girls believe in its creeds ! ” 37 While most children did not have the opportunity to contribute to the war campaign a directly as Bucky and his pals, Captain America ’ s quote identifies another full of life role they played : a source of hope for the future and something worth fighting for .
nazis

In his fight to protect the American home front, the Nazis were Captain America ’ s most formidable enemy. Nazis differed from Kirby and Simon ’ s other villains. Unlike oriental zombies, phantom hounds, or giant homicidal butterflies, Nazis were literally men in undifferentiated and did not immediately file as evil on a ocular level.38 Identification of the Nazis as a power of malefic often began with graphic representations : antic physical features, heavy german accents, and the omnipresent placement of swastikas.39 indeed, the number of swastika incorporated into any picture featuring Nazis seemed limited less by where they would realistically be displayed and more by how many could fit onto the page.40 Kirby and Simon made the identification of forces of good and evil even easier by featuring real people such as Hitler, Herman Goering, and General Edward P. King. This allowed readers to transfer their feelings for the actual men to their cartoon counterparts. Once characters had been identified as a certain moral valence, they exhibited behavior appropriate to their identification.41 Nazis are always manipulative and deadly. They instigate every conflict, forcing Captain America to respond and paralleling american introduction into the war. finally, their hubris is omnipresent and overblown.42 Nazi villains celebrate their success with plans to rule the Fatherland or claims of surpassing Hitler.43 Captain America could not be more humble. He exhibits pride not in himself, but in his state. After the kill of even another nazi, he proclaims, “ …you can tell that austrian paperhanger this—tell him that our freedom has been threatened before and we ’ re still around to tackle anyone who thinks he can take it from us now ! Hitler and his loot-crazed barbarians will find the farmer of Lexington and Concord very much alive in the spirit of every modern american ! ” 44
not entirely were the Nazis Captain America ’ s most formidable enemies ; they were besides his most park ones. This emphasis on Germany probably stemmed both from America ’ s pursuing a “ Europe-first ” strategy and from the jewish creators ’ preoccupation with the Holocaust and the destiny of european Jewry. other american enemies made their appearances. The most luminary were the collaborators of Vichy France and the Japanese. In “ The panic that was Devil ’ s Island, ” Steve Rogers goes to Vichy France ’ s POW prison to see his ally Tom Jason, who had ben taken prisoner by the Germans during their occupation of France.45 Steve finds Tom unshaven, emaciated, besides frighten to tell his friend what had been done to him. “ Captain America in Murder Stalks the Maneuvers ” features a Vichy Frenchman disguised as a representative of the Free French who replaces the fake ammunition to be used in the american soldiers ’ war games the surveil day with real number ammunition. This scheme kills several men.46
Meet Fang

While the depicting of the french focuses on their status as traitors, depictions of japanese are overtly racist. The Japanese in “ Meet Fang, Arch Fiend of the Orient ” have apish faces, sharp tooth, and claw-like hands. They talk openly of torturing and executing their enemies. Their target in this particular comic is the friendly, wise chinese emissary in Steve Rogers ’ charge, possibly an allusion to the japanese ’ s barbarous demeanor in the Sino-Japanese war.47 Edgar Snow, Mao Tse-tung ’ s early on biographer, captured the logic behind this word picture of the japanese as primitive and animalistic in comparison to early races. “ The individual Japanese, ” he wrote, “ is aware of his unfortunate intellectual and physical inferiority to person Koreans and Chinese…he is everlastingly seeking ways of compensation. ” Many Americans saw the japanese ’ sulfur ferociousness as a manifestation of this inferiority complex.48
engineering besides figures prominently into this manichaean universe. Captain America and his boyfriend soldiers rarely wield anything more boost than a plunder, while the Nazis employ all sorts of state-of-the-art weaponry. In “ The Wax Statue that Struck Death, ” “ …a secretly trained mechanize unit, organized by the mysterious wax man, works feverishly to complete and equip their streamlined, metallic monsters in the underground factories beneath dumbly wooded forest…. ” 49 “ The Return of the Red Skull ” features the Red Skull ’ sulfur might drill which pierces concrete, destroys buildings, and kills thousands.50 Chemical weaponry flush makes an appearance in “ Captain America and the Killers of the Bund, ” as one nazi threatens the Captain, “ I think you ’ ll be matter to to know dot after you ’ rhenium dead, ve are going to spray five hundred stallion zity massachusetts institute of technology zleep flatulence und den appropriate it. Ve vill den avait five hundred Feuhrer ’ s invasion. ” 51
such differences in engineering served two purposes. First, they reflected the actual differences in product between the United States and Germany. When it came to productiveness, no area could match the United States. Henry Kaiser, developer of the Liberty Ship, was finally dubbed “ Sir Launchalot ” for the huge number of ships he manufactured.52 When given the option between quantity and quality, the Germans choose quality. even german armaments minister Albert Speer acknowledged America ’ s “ production miracle ” and prophesized that “ it would be apparent to descendants that our antique, tradition-bound, and arthritic organizational system had lost the struggle. ” 53 More to the graphic point, the incorporation of technology made for more exciting ferocity than the stereotyped gunfight or hand-to-hand combat. All that alloy and machinery presented Captain America with a enemy of corresponding persuasiveness and allowed the hero to show off his fighting finesse.54
Allied victory in Europe signaled the end of Captain America Comics ’ golden long time. Stan Lee had replaced Kirby and Simon as the editor-in-chief before they were shipped off to war in 1943. It was he who took up the challenge of selling this beloved war comic to a postwar consultation. Lee had begun work at Timely comics when he was merely seventeen years old. He was related to Timely ’ s owner, Martin Goodman, then when Kirby and Simon were told to give the child a bite of oeuvre to do, the two amusing veterans were annoyed by this blatant work of nepotism. Lee was determined to prove himself. The son of romanian immigrants, Lee had grown up during the Great Depression and watched unemployment embroil his father into a crippling depression.55 He resolved to work angstrom unvoiced as necessary to become indispensable at whatever job he took on. Lee made few friends in educate and would turn to comic books as an escape from his loneliness.56 By senesce 15 he was repeatedly winning writing contests held by New York ’ s Herald-Tribune. After graduating from eminent school in 1939, Lee decided to approach Goodman about the possibility of a job and the opportunity to work with his heroes, the creators of Captain America.57 Kirby and Simon tasked Lee with the unappealing job of writing the two pages of textbook Captain America Comics had to include in order to qualify for second-class mailing benefits. “ cipher wanted to do that farce because cipher read it, ” Simon remarked, “ then Stan did it, and he treated it like it was the great american novel. ” 58
Lee was determined that Captain America ’ s competition with the Nazis continue despite their surrender to the Allies in May 1945. For a wax year after the war ’ sulfur end, Captain America would carry on fighting Hitler ’ s minions.59 In the August 1945 amusing “ The League of Hate, ” Nazi agents were still carrying out sabotage in the United States. Rather than assassinating american english leaders or destroying industry, their target was to, as Hitler put it, “ spread propaganda for a balmy peace ” ( Weiner ). other elements of the comic altered dramatically. Servicemen had composed a bombastic share of Captain America ’ s readership. Lee believed that the best way to retain this readership was to have Captain America ’ s storyline mirror veterans ’ experiences returning base. “ The Private Life of Captain America ” appeared in November 1946 and established Captain America ’ south civilian identity. In this report, Steve Rogers and Bucky Barnes are honorably discharged from the united states army. Steve returns to his prewar occupation as a sociable studies teacher at Lee High School, fighting common criminals as Captain America in his off time.60
Despite the deepen, sales continued to suffer. In April 1948, Lee made another major change to the Captain America canon by giving the hero a new buddy. In “ Golden Girl, ” Bucky is fritter and hospitalized. The fall of this care for character was meant to symbolize the loss the american people suffered during the war.61 Captain America recruits his longtime friend Betty Ross as his newly buddy, and she takes on the identity Golden Girl. Lee chose Golden Girl as Bucky ’ sulfur substitute in the hopes of capitalizing on the popularity of female heroines and tapping into the female demographic.62 Lee ’ s efforts were in conceited. timely canceled Captain America ’ s monthly in 1949.63
censoring was an obstacle all comics in the postwar period faced. In 1954, psychologist Dr. Frederic Wertham published Seduction of the Innocent in which he argued that kids who read comic books were more likely to grow into delinquents. Wertham presented as tell the youths he had worked with as a clinical psychologist. He asserted that the youths who regularly read comedian books besides were besides those who committed the most acts of juvenile violence. The record received enough attention for the offspring of comedian book content to earn a congressional hearing.64 The Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency convened its “ Comic Book Hearings ” in April of 1954.65 In response to the range of criticism presented at the hearing, respective comic book publishers came in concert to form the Comics Magazines Association of America ( CMAA ). This association issued the Comics Code Authority ( CCA ) more normally known as the Comics Code. Publishers who agreed to adhere to the Code ’ south stipulations received a seal informing the public that this finical comic bible met the organization ’ s standards of decency. The Code prohibited comics from including excessive violence, depictions of drug use, criticism of the politics, sexual imagination, or detailed portrayals of crime.66 Publishers were at a loss. They risked losing readers ’ interest by adhering to the Code, even consumers would not buy comics that lacked the CMAA ’ s seal. between 1954 and 1956, eighteen comic book publishers closed their doors .
The Comic Code proved a death sentence for many, but Stan Lee saw it as an opportunity. The Code required that comics be wholesome and moral, both of which were feature of Captain America Comics. Nazis were no longer a feasible foe for Captain America. rather, Lee took a clue from the national anxiety mounting in reaction to the rise of Red China, the exploitation of hydrogen bombs by the Soviets, and McCarthyism by making Captain America ’ s new enemy the forces of communism.67 The first issues of the revival appeared in 1954. The clear of each issue read “ Captain America…Commie Smasher. ” The rehabilitate Captain America ’ south adventures were as bombastic and political as those of the original serial. In “ You Die at Midnight, ” Captain America breaks up a communist spy ring that had been attempting to extort information about America ’ s atomic research from a shipyard employee by threatening to murder his blind son.68 The breed of consequence # 77 depicts Captain America fighting off a ship broad of communists, flying through the atmosphere barely past a subtitle that reads, “ Striking back at the Soviet. ” This exaggerated form of war may have sold millions of comics during the war, but it did not appeal to the readers of what was now the Cold War era. “ Captain America…Commie Smasher ” was canceled that same year after merely three issues.69
Captain America Comics remained canceled until 1964. During the hiatus, the achiever of other superheroes revealed where Captain America had gone improper in his abortive revival. Most comic book readers at this clock time were older than those of the 1940s. They were college students who craved complexity from their heroes. Kirby and Simon had returned to Timely comics, now known as Marvel, in the 1950s. The duet paid close attention to the psychological motivations of their raw characters. In 1962, they debuted Spider-Man, an unpopular, awkward high school student with a hood base life. Hulk first appeared the same year. His struggle to protect those around him from his uncontrollable transformations into a k elephantine besides made him a fan favorite. If the future Captain America revival was going to succeed, he was going to have to develop some of the lapp depth exhibited by the popular characters of the time.70
Kirby and Lee worked in concert to give their beloved character complexity. They scrapped all the changes Lee had made to the canon since 1941. Steve Rogers was never a schoolteacher, Golden Girl was never the Cap ’ south buddy, and the Captain had never fought the communists. They wrote a story that took Captain America and Bucky back to their last mission before the end of World War II. Near the narrative ’ randomness end, both the Captain and Bucky sit atop a missile heading straight for a major city. Cap realizes that he can not deactivate the projectile before it explodes. He tells Bucky to give up and let go of the missile, but Bucky refuses to doom the city. As Captain falls to safety, the projectile blows up, killing Bucky. After crashing into icy waters, Cap is frozen in suspend animation. When he is unblock in 1964, he wakes to find himself an antique hero burdened by survivor ’ randomness guilt in an unrecognizably modernized world.71 Cap ’ s struggle to both header with the past and adapt to the present was a hit with readers. Captain America cursorily went from has-been hero to Marvel ’ s most popular character.72
Captain America ’ mho development reflects the transformation of american society during and in the decades watch World War II. Before America entered the fight, Captain America Comics represented the interventionist element of a state distillery clinging to isolationism. The comics produced during the war mirror several elements of animation on the home front including batch production of war material, racism, civilian perception of the nation ’ s extraneous enemies, and an inflate sense of patriotism. The end of the war forced Captain America to discard his function as an uncompromising reformer. Readership had matured and wanted characters with more emotional complexity than was typical of Cap up to that point. Another significant element in the rejection of golden age Captain America lies in the singular nature of World War II. Captain America was born out of America ’ s most righteous war to date. No dispute since WWII has been so clearly apologize. Captain America was designed to represent good in a world divided between good and evil. When the postwar world proved to be more gray than black-and-white, the Captain was forced to adapt and take on his own morally equivocal past. Regardless of the development Captain America ’ south message, his survival into the twenty-first hundred is indicative mood of the fact that America continued to see itself as a coerce for beneficial. Captain America remains to this day a manifestation of America ’ second desire for righteousness .

Endnotes
  1. Jack Kirby and Joe Simon, “Captain America Comics #1,” Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Captain America Vol. 1 (New York: Marvel Worldwide Inc., 2012), p. 3.
  2. Bradford W. Wright, Comic Book Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America (Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press, 2001), p. 35.
  3. Gary Groth, “Jack Kirby Interview,” The Comic Journal, last modified July 19, 2011, http://www.tcj.com/jack-kirby-interview/.
  4. Jeff McLaughlin, Comics as Philosophy, (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2005), p. 93.
  5. Joe Simon, Joe Simon: My Life in Comics (London: Titan Books, 2011), p. 9.
  6. Gary Groth, “The Joe Simon Interview,” The Comic Journal, last modified July 19, 2011, http://www.tcj.com/the-joe-simon-interview/; Laurence Malson, Superheroes!Capes, Cowls, and the Creation of Comic Book Culture (New York: Crown Archetype, 2013), p. 70.
  7. Robert C. Harvey, The Art of the Comic Book: An Aesthetic History (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1996), p. 31.
  8. Ron Goulart, The Comic Book Reader’s Companion: An A-to-Z Guide to Everyone’s Favorite Art Form (New York: Harper Perennial, 1993), p. 23.
  9. Carole Kalish, interview with Joe Simon, “The American Dream…Come True,” Comics Feature 10 (July 1981), p. 26.
  10. Groth, op. cit.
  11. Jack Kirby and Joe Simon, “Captain America Comics #1,” Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Captain America Vol. 1 (New York: Marvel Worldwide Inc., 2012), p. 3.
  12. Ibid., p. 6.
  13. Ibid., p. 7.
  14. Ibid., p. 8.
  15. Les Daniels, Comix: A History of Comic Books in America, (New York: Bonanza Books, 1971), p. 137.
  16. Terrence Wandtke, The Meaning of Superhero Comic Books (Jefferson: McFarland, 2012), p. 94.
  17. McLaughlin, op cit., p. 94.
  18. Gordon, op. cit., p. 136.
  19. Malson, op. cit., p. 75.
  20. Kalish, op. cit.
  21. David H. Culbert, Information Control and Propaganda: Records of the Office of War Information (Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1986), p. vii.
  22. Wright, op. cit., p. 42.
  23. Ibid., p. 31.
  24. Mark Evanier and Steve Sherman, “Jack Kirby Biography,” Jack Kirby Museum, last modified 1972, http://kirbymuseum.org/biography/; Malson, op. cit., p. 80.
  25. Alan Light and Murray Bishoff, interview with Jack Kirby, “Stop Answering His Questions Murray!,” The New Nostalgia Journal No. 27, July 1976.
  26. Wright, op. cit., p. 36; “The Comics and Their Audience,” Publishers Weekly, April 18, 1942.
  27. Lieutenant J.G., “Nudes Preferred” letter, New York Times, August 2, 1942.
  28. Ian Gordon, Comic Strips and Consumer Culture: 1890-1945 (Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1998), p. 139.
  29. Wright, op cit., p. 27.
  30. Wright, op cit., p. 22.
  31. Jack Kirby and Joe Simon, “The Case of the Fake Money Fiends,” Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Captain America Vol. 1 (New York: Marvel Worldwide Inc., 2012), p. 227.
  32. Jack Kirby and Joe Simon, “The Return of the Red Skull,” Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Captain America Vol. 1 (New York: Marvel Worldwide Inc., 2012), p. 148.
  33. Jack Kirby and Joe Simon, “The Riddle of the Red Skull,” Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Captain America Vol. 1 (New York: Marvel Worldwide Inc., 2012), p. 43.
  34. Wright, op. cit., p. 23.
  35. Jack Kirby and Joe Simon, “Killers of the Bund,” Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Captain America Vol. 2 (New York: Marvel Worldwide Inc., 2008), p. 36.
  36. Gordon, op cit., p. 142.
  37. Jack Kirby and Joe Simon, “Killers of the Bund,” Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Captain America Vol. 2 (New York: Marvel Worldwide Inc., 2008), p. 84.
  38. Gordon, op cit., p. 24.
  39. Robert Jewett and John Shelton, Captain America and the Crusade Against Evil: The Dilemma of Zealous Nationalism (Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans, 2003), p. 223.
  40. Harry Brod, Superman is Jewish?: How Comic Book Superheroes Came to Serve Truth, Justice, and the Jewish-American Way (New York: Free Press, 2012), p. 68.
  41. Jewett and Lawrence, op cit., p. 223.
  42. Ibid., p. 225. 
  43. Jack Kirby and Joe Simon, “Captain America,” Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Captain America Vol. 1 (New York: Marvel Worldwide Inc., 2012), p. 25; Jack Kirby and Joe Simon, “The Return of the Red Skull,” Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Captain America Vol. 1 (New York: Marvel Worldwide Inc., 2012), p. 140.
  44. Jack Kirby and Joe Simon, “Spy Ambush,” Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Captain America Vol. 3 (New York: Marvel Worldwide Inc., 2009), p. 81.
  45. Jack Kirby and Joe Simon, “The Terror that Was Devil’s Island,” Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Captain America Vol. 2 (New York: Marvel Worldwide Inc., 2008), p. 45.
  46. Jack Kirby and Joe Simon, “Murder Stalks the Maneuvers,” Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Captain America Vol. 2 (New York: Marvel Worldwide Inc., 2008), p. 218.
  47. Jack Kirby and Joe Simon, “Meet Fang, Arch Fiend of the Orient,” Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Captain America Vol. 2 (New York: Marvel Worldwide Inc., 2008), p. 85.
  48. Edgar Snow, The Battle for Asia (1942: World Publishing Co.), p. 65-70.
  49. Jack Kirby and Joe Simon, “The Wax Statue that Struck Death,” Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Captain America Vol. 1 (New York: Marvel Worldwide Inc., 2012), p. 102.
  50. Jack Kirby and Joe Simon, “The Return of the Red Skull,” Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Captain America Vol. 1 (New York: Marvel Worldwide Inc., 2012), p. 141.
  51. Jack Kirby and Joe Simon, “Killers of the Bund,” Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Captain America Vol. 2 (New York: Marvel Worldwide Inc., 2008), p. 37.
  52. David M. Kennedy, The American People In World War II (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 225.
  53. Ibid., p. 225.
  54. Brod, op cit., p. 70.
  55. Ronin Ro, Tales to Astonish: Jack Kirby, Stan Lee, and the American Comic Book Revolution (New York: Bloomsbury, 2004), p. 17.
  56. Ibid., p. 18.
  57. Ibid., p. 19.
  58. Ibid., p. 22.
  59. John Richards, Smashing Thru! The Story of Captain America, Comic Books, and the Evolution of American Youth (1938-1970) (Sonoma, CA: Sonoma State University, 2011), p. 82.
  60. Ro, op cit., p. 45.
  61. Cord A Scott, Comics and Conflict: War and Patriotically Themed Comics in American Cultural History From World War II Through the Iraq War (Chicago: Loyola University Chicago, 2011), p. 93.
  62. Richards, op cit., p. 93. 
  63. Ro, op cit. p. 47.
  64. Scott, op cit., p. 102.
  65. Ibid., p. 103.
  66. Ibid., p. 104.
  67. Ibid., p. 105.
  68. “Captain America Comics Vol. 1 77,” Marvel Database, http://marvel.wikia.com/Captain_America_Comics_Vol_1_77.
  69. Jeffrey K. Johnson, Super-history: Comic Book Superheroes and American Society, 1938 to the Present (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2012), p. 56.
  70. Robert G. Weiner, Captain America and the Struggle of the Superhero: Critical Essays (Jefferson, NC: MacFarland, 2008), p. 30.
  71. Ro, op cit., p. 82.
  72. Ibid., p.83.
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