6. How do people adapt to climate change?

D. CURRENT KNOWLEDGE ABOUT RESPONDING TO CLIMATE CHANGE
Some adaptation is occurring now, to observed and projected future climate change, but on a limited basis.
There is growing evidence since the IPCC Third Assessment of human activity to adapt to watch and expect climate change. For exercise, climate change is considered in the design of infrastructure projects such as coastal defense mechanism in the Maldives and The Netherlands, and the Confederation Bridge in Canada. early examples include prevention of arctic lake effusion flood in Nepal, and policies and strategies such as water management in Australia and government responses to heat-waves in, for example, some european countries. [ 7.6, 8.2, 8.6, 17.ES, 17.2, 16.5, 11.5 ] Adaptation will be necessary to address impacts resulting from the warming which is already unavoidable due to past emissions.

past emissions are estimated to involve some ineluctable warm ( about a further 0.6°C by the end of the century ) even if atmospheric greenhouse gasoline concentrations remain at 2000 levels ( see Working Group I Fourth Assessment ). There are some impacts for which adaptation is the merely available and appropriate answer. An indication of these impacts can be seen in Figure SPM-2.

A wide array of adaptation options is available, but more extensive adaptation than is currently occurring is required to reduce vulnerability to future climate change. There are barriers, limits and costs, but these are not fully understood.

Impacts are expected to increase with increases in ball-shaped average temperature, as indicated in Figure SPM-2. Although many early impacts of climate change can be effectively addressed through adaptation, the options for successful adaptation decrease and the consociate costs increase with increasing climate exchange. At present we do not have a clear visualize of the limits to adaptation, or the price, partially because effective adaptation measures are highly dependent on specific, geographic and climate risk factors equally well as institutional, political and fiscal constraints. [ 7.6, 17.2, 17.4 ] The array of potential adaptive responses available to human societies is very large, ranging from strictly technical ( for example, ocean defences ), through behavioral ( for example, altered food and recreational choices ) to managerial ( for example, alter grow practices ), to policy ( for example, plan regulations ). While most technologies and strategies are known and developed in some countries, the tax literature does not indicate how effective versatile options are to amply reduce risks, particularly at higher levels of warming and relate impacts, and for vulnerable groups. In addition, there are formidable environmental, economic, informational, social, attitudinal and behavioral barriers to execution of adaptation. For developing countries, handiness of resources and build adaptive capacity are particularly important. [ See Sections 5 and 6 in Chapters 3-16 ; besides 17.2, 17.4 ] .
Adaptation alone is not expected to cope with all the project effects of climate change, and particularly not over the long operate as most impacts increase in magnitude [ Figure SPM-2 ] .

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