Eastern Woodland Culture

Eastern Woodland Culture

The Eastern Woodland Culture consisted of indian tribes inhabiting the easterly United States and Canada. The easterly Woodlands were moderate-climate regions approximately from the Atlantic to the Mississippi River and included the Great Lakes. This huge area boasted ample rain, numerous lakes and rivers, and great forests. The rich earth and forests from the Ohio River to the Gulf of Mexico comprised the southeastern depart of the Eastern Woodlands. This culture area abuts the Plains Culture to the west and the subarctic culture to the north. Indian spearing fish The Adena and Hopewell were the earliest historic Eastern Woodland inhabitants. Between 800 B.C. and A.D. 800, they lived in the Ohio and Mississippi river valley. Both societies are noted for their big burying mounds, frequently graced with sophisticate dangerous goods. Like earlier antediluvian groups, the Adena were hunters and gatherers who erected seasonal camps. The Hopewell besides were hunters and gatherers, but like later Woodland tribes, they lived in villages and supplemented their diet with cultivate plants. Later peoples of the Eastern Woodlands included the Illinois, Iroquois, Shawnee and a number of Algonkian-speaking peoples such as the Narragansett and Pequot. Southeastern peoples included the Cherokee, Chocktaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Natchez and Seminole. Eastern Woodland tribes lived in alike ways. Their complex societies were typically divided into classes, including a chief, his children, the nobility and commoners. Overall there were some variations in climate and harvestable flora and fauna. It followed that the tribes varied reasonably in diet and house, apparel and transportation. Since war was coarse and frequent, villages were often fortified by fencing reinforced with soil. Causes of conflict between tribes varied, but typically involved terrritorial rights, male coming-of-age rituals, or retaliation. In general, the natives were deer-hunters and farmers. The men made bows and arrows, stone knives and war clubs. The women tended garden plots where beans, corn, pumpkin, squash and tobacco were cultivated. Women besides harvested these crops and prepared the food. Black pottery or wood and bark vessels were used for cooking. They dried berries, corn, fish, kernel and squash for the winter. The diet of deer kernel was besides supplemented by other game and mollusk. The tribe lived approach water for fare purposes. In general, the northern tribes fashioned birchbark canoe canoes while southeast tribes dug out canoes from tree trunks. On country, the natives traveled on foot and bore their cargo on their backs, having no gang animals. Dogs were their sole domesticated animals. several sorts of houses were erected throughout the Eastern Woodlands. The most popular was probable the wigwam, a bark-covered structure and the longhouse, home to several families. Some southeasterly tribes lived in cold-weather houses of clay applied to an armature of poles, complete with a cone or round off ceiling. The Seminoles of Florida used a chikee, a shelter without walls thatched with the palmetto tree ‘s fan-shaped leaves. numerous hours were required to fashion the popular deerskin dress. Women cut the skins with flint knives or shells and sutured them with animal tendon. Face paint and the men ‘s scalp lock ( with shaven side haircloth ) were typical. Beliefs associated with Manitou, a heroic verse trope who restored the world from mud following severe rains, were widely held. In the southeast, there were sun idolize temples ; rites were intricate and featured an altar of displace that was extinguished and re-lighted annually. The easterly Woodlands ‘ original inhabitants were the first the european colonists met. From the beginning, the settlers adopted many of the natives ‘ proven methods and paraphernalia, including deerskin invest.

Native American Cultural Regions Map.

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