Learning from Megadisasters: A Decade of Lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake

March 11, 2021
Tokyo, Japan
Authors : Shoko Takemoto, Naho Shibuya, and Keiko Sakoda Image

Photo: Children from a local youth baseball team wave a big fishing flag to welcome the commemorative train near Otsuchi Station after the opening of the Sanriku Railway Rias Line. The JR Yamada Line between Miyako and Kamaishi, which had been closed due to the tsunami, was transferred to the Sanriku Railway, connecting all sections of the line that were closed in Iwate Prefecture after the March 11, 2011 earthquake and tsunami. (Source: Kyoto News)

today marks the ten-year anniversary of the Great East Japan Earthquake ( GEJE ), a mega-disaster that marked Japan and the global with its unprecedented scale of destruction. This feature fib commemorates the disaster by reflecting on what it has taught us over the past decade in regards to infrastructure resilience, risk recognition, reduction, and readiness, and calamity risk finance. Since GEJE, the World Bank in partnership with the Government of Japan, particularly through the Japan-World Bank Program on Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Management in Developing Countries has been working with japanese and global partners to understand impact, reply, and recovery from this megadisaster to identify larger lessons for disaster gamble management ( DRM ). Among the numerous lessons learned over the past decade of GEJE reconstruction and analysis, we highlight three common themes that have emerged repeatedly through the examples of good practices gathered across diverse sectors. First is the importance of planning. flush though disasters will constantly be unexpected, if not unprecedented, planning for disasters has benefits both before and after they occur. Second is that resilience is strengthened when it is shared. After a ten since GEJE, to strengthen the resilience of infrastructure, readiness, and finance for the next catastrophe, throughout Japan home and local governments, infrastructure developers and operators, businesses and industries, communities and households are building back better systems by prearranging mechanisms for risk reduction, response and continuity through collaboration and common hold. Third is that resilience is an iterative process. many adaptations were made to the policy and regulative frameworks after the GEJE. many past disasters show that resilience is an interactional march that needs to be adjusted and sustained over time, specially before a calamity strikes. As the worldly concern is increasingly tested to respond and rebuild from unexpected impacts of extreme weather events and the COVID-19 pandemic, we highlight some of these efforts that may have relevance for countries around the world seeking to improve their readiness for disaster events .

Introduction: The Triple Disaster, Response and Recovery

On March 11th, 2011 a Magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck off the northeasterly coast of Japan, near the Tohoku region. The violence of the earthquake sent a tsunami rush towards the Tohoku coastline, a black wall of water which wiped away entire towns and villages. Sea walls were overrun. 20,000 lives were lost. The scale of end to caparison, infrastructure, industry and department of agriculture was extreme in Fukushima, Iwate, and Miyagi prefectures. In addition to the hundreds of thousands who lost their homes, the earthquake and tsunami contributed to an accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, requiring extra mass evacuations. The impacts not entirely shook Japan ’ s club and economy as a whole, but besides had ripple effects in global supply chains. In the twenty-first hundred, a calamity of this scale is a global phenomenon. The badness and complexity of the cascading disasters was not anticipated. The events during and following the Great East Japan Earthquake ( GEJE ) showed merely how blasting and complex a low-probability, high-impact catastrophe can be. however, although the impacts of the triple-disaster were devastating, Japan ’ s bequest of DRM probably reduced losses. Japan ’ sulfur structural investments in warning systems and infrastructure were effective in many cases, and readiness train helped many act and evacuate promptly. The big spatial shock of the catastrophe, and the area ’ s largely rural and aged population, posed extra challenges for response and recovery. Ten years after the megadisaster, the region is beginning to return to a sense of normality, tied if many places look quite different. After years in rapidly-implemented irregular prefabricated caparison, most people have moved into permanent homes, including 30,000 raw units of public caparison. Damaged infrastructure has been besides restored or is nearing completion in the region, including rail lines, roads, and seawalls. In 2014, three years after GEJE, The World Bank published Learning from Megadisasters: Lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake. Edited by Federica Ranghieri and Mikio Ishiwatari, the bulk brought together dozens of experts ranging from seismic engineers to urban planners, who analyzed what happened on March 11, 2011 and the follow days, months, and years ; compiling lessons for other countries in 36 comprehensive Knowledge Notes. This extensive research feat identified a number of cardinal learnings in multiple sectors, and emphasized the importance of both geomorphologic and non-structural measures, ampere well as identifying effective strategies both pre- and post-disaster. The report highlighted four central lessons after this intensive study of the GEJE disaster, reception, and initial recovery : 1 ) A holistic, quite than single-sector approach to DRM improves readiness for complex disasters ;
2 ) Investing in prevention is significant, but is not a substitute for readiness ;
3 ) Each disaster is an opportunity to learn and adapt ;
4 ) Effective DRM requires bringing together diverse stakeholders, including assorted levels of government, residential district and nonprofit actors, and the secret sector. Although these lessons are learned specifically from the GEJE, the report besides focuses on learnings with broader applicability. Over late years, the Japan-World Bank Program on Mainstreaming DRM in Developing Countries has furthered the work of the Learning from Megadisasters report, continuing to gather, analyze and plowshare the cognition and lessons learned from GEJE, together with past calamity experiences, to enhance the resilience of adjacent generation development investments around the world. Ten years on from the GEJE, we take a moment to revisit the lessons gathered, and reflect on how they may continue to be relevant in the adjacent ten, in a global faced with both seismic disasters and other emergent hazards such as pandemics and climate change. Through synthesizing a decade of research on the GEJE and accumulation of the lessons from the past catastrophe experience, this history highlights three samara strategies which recurred across many of the cases we studied. They are : 1) the importance of planning for disasters before they strike,
2) DRM cannot be addressed by either the public or private sector alone but enabled only when it is shared among many stakeholders
,
3) institutionalize the culture of continuous enhancement of the resilience. For example, business continuity plans, or BCPs, can help both public and private organizations minimize damages and disruptions. BCPs are documents prepared in boost which provide steering on how to respond to a dislocation and resume the rescue of products and services. additionally, the creation of pre-arranged agreements among independent public and/or private organizations can help share essential responsibilities and information both before and after a disaster. This might include agreements with secret firms to repair populace infrastructures, among individual firms to share the costs of extenuation infrastructure, or among municipalities to partake rapid reception teams and other resources. These three approaches recur throughout the more specific lessons and strategies identified in the pursue part, which is organized along the three areas of disaster risk management : resilient infrastructure ; hazard recognition, reduction and preparednes s ; and catastrophe hazard finance and insurance .

Lessons from the Megadisaster

Resilient Infrastructure The GEJE had austere impacts on critical ‘ lifelines ’ —infrastructures and facilities that provide essential services such as exile, communication, sanitation, education, and medical care. Impacts of megadisasters include not only damages to assets ( address impacts ), but besides disruptions of key services, and the resulting social and economic effects ( indirect impacts ). For exemplar, the GEJE caused a water add disruption for up to 500,000 people in Sendai city, adenine well as completely submerging the city ’ s urine discussion plant. [ one ] Lack of access to urine and sanitation had a ripple effect on populace health and other hand brake services, impacting response and recovery. Smart investment in infrastructure resilience can help minimize both address and collateral impacts, reducing lifeline disruptions. The 2019 report Lifelines: The Resilient Infrastructure Opportunity found through a global study that every dollar invested in the resilience of lifelines had a $ 4 benefit in the long run. In the case of water infrastructure, the World Bank report Resilient Water Supply and Sanitation Services: The Case of Japan documents how Sendai City learned from the disaster to improve the resilience of these infrastructures. [ two ] Steps included retrofitting existing systems with seismic resilience upgrades, enhancing business continuity planning for sanitation systems, and creating a geographic information system ( GIS ) -based asset management system that allows for agile identification and haunt of damaged pipes and early assets. During the GEJE, damages and disruptions to water delivery services were minimized through existing programs, including reciprocal care agreements with early water system supply utility operators. Through these agreements, the Sendai City Waterworks Bureau received support from more than 60 water utilities to provide hand brake water supplies. Policies which promote structural resilience strategies were besides essential to preserving urine and sanitation services. After the 1995 Great Hanshin Awaji Earthquake ( GHAE ), japanese utilities invested in earthquake repellent piping in water supply and sanitation systems. The normally used earthquake-resistant ductile iron pipe ( ERDIP ) has not shown any wrong from major earthquakes including the 2011 GEJE and the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake. [ three ] Changes were besides made to inner policies after the GEJE based on the challenges faced, such as decentralizing hand brake decision-making and providing prepare for local communities to set up hand brake water supplies without utility workers with the goal of speeding up recovery efforts. [ intravenous feeding ] Redundancy is another morphologic strategy that contributed to resilience during and after GEJE. In Sendai City, redundancy and seismic reinforcing stimulus in water supply infrastructure allowed the utility to continue to operate pipelines that were not physically damaged in the earthquake. [ five ] The Lifelines reputation describes how in the context of telecommunications infrastructure, the redundancy created through a diverseness of routes in Japan ’ s submarine internet cable system limited disruptions to national connectivity during the megadisaster. [ six ] however, the report emphasizes that redundancy must be calibrated to the needs and resources of a finical context. For private firms, redundancy and backups for critical infrastructure can be achieved through collaboration ; after the GEJE, firms are increasingly collaborating to defray the costs of these investments. [ seven ] The GEJE besides illustrated the importance of planning for transportation resilience. A Japan Case Study Report on Road Geohazard Risk Management shows the role that both national policy and public-private agreements can play. In reply to the GEJE, Japan ’ second central catastrophe legislation, the DCBA ( Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act ) was amended in 2012, with particular focus on the indigence to reopen roads for hand brake answer. Quick road repairs were made possible after the GEJE in contribution due to the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism ( MLIT ) ’ second emergency natural process plans, the swift action of the rapid response means Technical Emergency Control Force ( TEC-FORCE ), and prearranged agreements with secret construction companies for emergency convalescence work. [ eight ] During the GEJE, roads were used as elimination sites and were shown effective in controlling the ranch of floods. After the calamity, public-private partnerships ( PPPs ) were besides made to accommodate the consumption of expressway embankments as tsunami evacuation sites. As inquiry on Resilient Infrastructure PPPs highlights, clean definitions of roles and responsibilities are essential to effective arrangements between the government and private companies. In Japan, lessons from the GEJE and other earthquakes have led to a refinement of catastrophe definitions, such as numeral standards for triggering storm majeure provisions of infrastructure PPP contracts. In Sendai City, clarifying the post-disaster responsibilities of public and private actors across diverse sectors sped up the response summons. [ nine ] This have was built upon after the catastrophe, when Miyagi prefecture conferred operation of the Sendai International Airport to a individual consortium through a concession system which included refined violence majeure definitions. In the context of a hazard-prone region, the agreement distinctly defines disaster-related roles and responsibilities american samoa good as relevant triggering events. [ ten ] Partnerships for creating backup systems that have value in non-disaster times have also proved effective in the aftermath of the GEJE. As described in Resilient Industries in Japan, Toyota ’ s automotive plant in Ohira village, Miyagi Prefecture lost might for two weeks following GEJE. To avoid such losses in the future, companies in the industrial park sought to secure energy during ability outages and shortages by building the F-Grid, their own mini-grid system with a comprehensive energy management arrangement. The F-Grid stick out is a collaboration of 10 companies and organizations in the Ohira Industrial Park. As a system used entirely for accompaniment energy would be dearly-won, the system is besides used to improve energy efficiency in the park during normal times. The undertaking was supported by funding from Japan ’ s “ Smart Communities ” program. [ xi ] In 2016, F-grid achieved a 24 percentage increase in department of energy efficiency and a 31 percentage decrease in carbon dioxide emissions compared to similarly sized parks. [ twelve ] Image

Photo: Students at Kanawaho Kichi Gakuen, Saitama Prefecture hiding under their desks during disaster drills. Source: Kyodo News Images.

Schools are besides critical infrastructures, for their education and community roles, and besides because they are normally used as elimination centers. Japan has updated seismic resilience standards for schools over time, integrating measures against different risks and vulnerabilities revealed after each catastrophe, as documented in the report Making Schools Resilient at Scale . After the 2011 GEJE, there was very little earthquake-related price ; preferably, most damage was caused by the tsunami. however, in some cases damages to nonstructural elements like suspending ceilings in school gymnasiums limited the possibility of using these spaces after the disaster. After the calamity, a major update was made to the policies on the condom of nonstructural elements in schools, given the necessitate for higher resilience standards for their function as post-disaster elimination centers [ thirteen ].

similarly, for building regulations, standards and professional coach modules were updated taking the lessons learned from GEJE. The Converting Disaster Experience into a Safer Built Environment: The Case of Japan report highlights that, legal framework like, The Building Standard Law/Seismic Retrofitting Promotion Law, was amended further enhance the morphologic resilience of the build environment, including strengthening morphologic integrity, improving the efficiency of plan review process, equally well as mandating seismic diagnosis of large public buildings. Since the establishment of the legal and regulative model for building guard in early 1900, Japan continued incremental effort to create enabling environment for owners, designers, builders and build up officials to make the built environment dependable together. Cultural heritage besides plays an crucial role in creating healthy communities, and the loss or damage of these items can scar the cohesion and identity of a community. The report card Resilient Cultural Heritage: Learning from the Japanese Experience shows how the GEJE highlighted the importance of investing in the resilience of cultural properties, such as through renovation budgets and response teams, which enabled the move of at-risk items and restoration of properties during and after the GEJE. After the megadisaster, the unpaid administration Shiryō-Net was formed to help rescue and preserve inheritance properties, and this network has now spread across Japan. [ fourteen ] Engaging both volunteer and government organizations in inheritance preservation can allow for a more varied reply. cultural properties can play a character in healing communities wrought by disasters : in Ishinomaki City, the restoration of a historic storehouse served as a symbol of reconstruction [ xv ], while elsewhere repair of cultural inheritance sites and the celebration of cultural festivals served a stimulant for recovery. [ sixteen ] Cultural inheritance besides played a preventive character during and after the disaster by embedding the experience of anterior disasters in the build up environment. Stone monuments which marked the extent of historic tsunami served as guides for some residents, who fled uphill past the stones and escaped the dangerous waters. [ seventeen ] This suggests a likely character for cultural inheritance in instructing future generations about historic hazards. These examples of lessons from the GEJE highlight how investing in resilient infrastructure is all-important, but must besides be done smartly, with stress on planning, purpose, and alimony. Focusing on both minimizing calamity impacts and putting processes in place to facilitate rapid infrastructure restitution can reduce both direct and indirect impacts of megadisasters. Over the ten since GEJE, many examples and experiences on how to better invest in resilient infrastructure, design for service continuity and agile reaction, and catalyze strategic partnerships across diverse groups are emerging from Japan. Risk Identification, Reduction, and Preparedness Ten years after the GEJE, a number of lessons have emerged as important in identify, reducing, and preparing for catastrophe risks. Given the unprecedented nature of the GEJE, it is important to be prepared for both known and uncertain risks. Information and communication technology (ICT) can play a role in improving risk recognition and making evidence-based decisions for disaster risk reduction and readiness. Communicating these risks to communities, in a direction people can take allow extenuation action, is a cardinal. These processes also need to be inclusive, involving diverse stakeholders — including women, elders, and the private sector — that need to be engaged and empowered to understand, reduce, and prepare for disasters. last, resilience is never complete. preferably, as the adaptations made by Japan after the GEJE and many past disasters show, resilience is a continuous process that needs to be adjusted and sustained over time, particularly in times before a disaster strikes. Although DRM is central in Japan, the scale of the 2011 triple catastrophe dramatically exceeded expectations. After the GEJE, as chapter 32 of Learning From Megadisasters highlights, the electric potential of low-probability, high-impact events led Japan to focus on both structural and nonstructural catastrophe risk management measures. [ eighteen ] Mitigation and readiness strategies can be designed to be effective for both predicted and uncertain risks. Planning for a multihazard context, rather than only individual hazards, can help countries act quickly even when the impossible occur. Identifying, preparing for, and reducing calamity risks all play a function in this serve. The GEJE highlighted the important character ICT can play in both understanding gamble and making evidence-based decisions for risk identification, decrease, and readiness. As documented in the World Bank report Information and Communication Technology for Disaster Risk Management in Japan , at the time of the GEJE, Japan had implemented diverse ICT systems for disaster reaction and recovery, and the calamity tested the potency of these systems. During the GEJE, Japan ’ s “ Earthquake Early Warning System ” ( EEWS ) issued a series of warnings. Through the detection of initial seismic waves, EEWS can provide a warn of a few seconds or minutes, allowing immediate action by individuals and organizations. Japan Railways ’ “ Urgent Earthquake Detection and Alarm System ” ( UrEDAS ) automatically activated emergency brakes of 27 Shinkansen string lines, successfully bringing all trains to a safe stop. After the calamity, Japan expanded hand brake alert manner of speaking systems. [ nineteen ] Image

Photo: Disaster drill conducted assuming Kyushu Shinkansen made an emergency stop through earthquake early warning system. Source: Kyodo News Images.

Resilient Industries in Japan report highlights an exemplar of how RESAS, or the regional Economy Society Analyzing System, was created by a partnership between the japanese government and private system design partners. The organization, which visualizes boastful data including population drift and regional economic drivers, has been used by local governments to make evidence-based regional development plans, including those in areas affected by GEJE. The system continues to be updated and expanded, as illustrated by the launch of V-RESAS in 2020, which visualizes near-real-time consumer demeanor data. This information is being used to inform planning and decision-making for COVID-19 commercial enterprise recovery at the firm and government levels. The World Bank ’ south sketch on Preparedness Maps shows how seismic preparedness maps are used in Japan to communicate localization specific primary and secondary hazards from earthquakes, promoting readiness at the residential district and family level. Preparedness maps are regularly updated after catastrophe events, and since 2011 Japan has promoted risk decrease activities to prepare for the projected maximal probable tsunami [ xx ]. Effective engagement of various stakeholders is besides important to preparedness map and early disaster readiness activities. This means absorb and empowering divers groups including women, the aged, children, and the private sector. Elders are a particularly crucial demographic in the context of the GEJE, as the report Elders Leading the Way to Resilience illustrates. Tohoku is an aging area, and two-thirds of lives lost from the GEJE were over 60 years erstwhile. research shows that building entrust and social ties can reduce catastrophe impacts- after GEJE, a analyze found that communities with senior high school social capital lost fewer residents to the tsunami. [ twenty-one ] Following the megadisaster, elders in Ofunato formed the Ibasho Cafe, a community space for strengthening social capital among older people. The World Bank has explored the likely of the Ibasho exemplar for other context, highlighting how fueling social capital and engaging elders in strengthening their community can have benefits for both normal times and improve resilience when a disaster does hit. Conducting simulation drills regularly provide another way of engaging stakeholders in readiness. As described in Learning from Disaster Simulation Drills in Japan , [ xxii ] after the 1995 GHAE the first Comprehensive Disaster Management Drill Framework was developed as a guide for the execution of a comprehensive system of catastrophe answer drills and establishing links between versatile disaster management agencies. The comprehensive Disaster Management Drill Framework is updated per annum by the Central Disaster Management Council. The GEJE led to newfangled and improved drill protocols in the impact region and in Japan as a wholly. For example, the 35th Joint Disaster simulation Drill was held in the Tokyo metropolitan region in 2015 to respond to issues identified during the GEJE, such as improving reciprocal corroborate systems among residents, governments, and organizations ; verifying disaster management plans ; and improving calamity response capabilities of government agencies. In accession to regularly scheduled disaster pretense drills, GEJE memorial events are held in Japan per annum to memorialize victims and keep calamity readiness in the public consciousness. Business continuity planning (BCP) is another key scheme that shows how ongoing attention to resilience is besides substantive for both public and private sector organizations. As Resilient Industries in Japan demonstrates, after the GEJE, BCPs helped firms reduce disaster losses and recover quickly, benefiting employees, supply chains, and the economy at large. BCP is supported by many national policies in Japan, and after the GEJE, firms that had BCPs in place had reduced impacts on their fiscal soundness compared to firms that did not. [ twenty-three ] The GEJE besides led to the update and refining of BCPs across Japan. Akemi industrial park in Aichi prefecture, began clientele continuity planning at the plate of the industrial park three years before the GEJE. After the GEJE, the park revised their plan, expanding focus on the safety of workers. National policies in Japan promote the development of BCPs, including the 2013 Basic Act for National Resilience, which was developed after the GEJE and emphasizes resilience as a share goal across multiple sectors. [ twenty-four ] Japan besides supports BCP development for populace sector organizations including subnational governments and infrastructure operators. By 2019, all of Japan ’ s prefectural governments, and about 90 % of municipal governments had developed BCPs. [ twenty-five ] The character of fiscal institutions in incentivizing BCPs is far addressed in the postdate section. The ongoing nature of these readiness actions highlights that resilience is a continuous procedure. Risk management strategies must be adapted and sustained over time, particularly during times without disasters. This principle is central to Japan ’ s disaster resilience policies. In belated 2011, based on a report documenting the GEJE from the Expert Committee on Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Management, Japan amended the DCBA ( Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act ) to enhance its multi-hazard countermeasures, adding a chapter on tsunami countermeasures. [ twenty-six ] Disaster Risk Finance and Insurance Disasters can have a large fiscal impact, not only in the areas where they strike, but besides at the large scale of supply chains and national economy. For exemplar, the GEJE led to the closure of nuclear might plants across Japan, resulting in a 50 % decrease in energy production and causing home supply disruptions. The GEJE has illustrated the importance of catastrophe risk finance and policy ( DRFI ) such as understanding and clarifying contingent liabilities and allocating contingency budgets, putting in place fiscal protection measures for critical lifeline infrastructure assets and services, and developing mechanisms for vulnerable businesses and households to cursorily access fiscal support. DRFI mechanism can help people, firms, and critical infrastructure invalidate or minimize disruptions, continue operations, and recover cursorily after a calamity. Pre-arranged agreements, including public-private partnerships, are key strategies for the financial protection of critical infrastructure. The composition Financial Protection of Critical Infrastructure Services ( forthcoming ) [ xxvii ] shows how pre-arranged agreements between the public sector and private sector for post-disaster reply can facilitate rapid infrastructure recovery after disasters, reducing the aim and collateral impacts of infrastructure disruptions, including economic impacts. GEJE caused devastating impacts to the transportation system network across Japan. approximately 2,300 km of expressways were closed, representing 65 percentage of expressways managed by NEXCO East Japan, resulting in major add chain disruptions [ twenty-eight ]. however, with the activation of pre-arranged agreements between governments and local construction companies for road clearance and convalescence work, allowing damaged major motorways to be repaired within one week of the earthquake. This quick response allowed critical access for early hand brake services to far stand-in and recovery operations. The GEJE illustrated the importance of clearly defining post-disaster financial roles and responsibilities among public and private actors in order to restore critical infrastructure rapidly. World Bank research on Catastrophe Insurance Programs for Public Assets highlights how the Japan Railway Construction, Transport and Technology Agency ( JRTT ) uses policy to reduce the contingent liabilities of critical infrastructure to ease impacts to government budgets in the event of a megadisaster. advance agreements between the government, infrastructure owners and operators, and policy companies distinctly outline how fiscal responsibilities will be shared in the consequence of a catastrophe. In the consequence of a megadisaster like GEJE, the government pays a bombastic share of convalescence costs, which enables the Shinkansen bullet train gearing service to be restored more quickly. [ twenty-nine ] The Resilient Industries in Japan   report highlights how diverse and comprehensive disaster risk financing methods are also important to promoting a resilient industry sector. After the GEJE, 90 % of bankruptcies linked to the calamity were due to indirect impacts such as supply chain disruptions. This means that industries located elsewhere are besides vulnerable : a sketch found that six years after GEJE, a greater proportion of bankruptcy declarations were located in Tokyo than Tohoku. [ thirty ] Further, firms without calamity gamble finance in position had much higher increases in debt levels than firms with preexisting gamble financing mechanisms in home. [ thirty-one ] Disaster gamble finance can play a character pre-disaster, through mechanisms such as low-interest loans, guarantees, policy, or grants which incentivize the creation of BCPs and early extenuation and readiness measures. When a catastrophe strikes, fiscal mechanism that subscribe impacted businesses, specially little or culture medium enterprises and women-owned businesses, can help promote equitable recovery and help oneself businesses survive. For fiscal institutions, just keeping banks open after a major catastrophe can support reaction and convalescence. After the GEJE, the Bank of Japan ( BoJ ) and local banks leveraged pre-arranged agreements to maintain liquid, opening the foremost weekend after the catastrophe to help minimize economic disruptions. [ thirty-two ] These strategies highlight the authoritative function of finance in considering economic needs before a disaster strikes, and having systems in seat to act promptly to limit both economic and infrastructure service impacts of disasters .

Looking to the Future

Ten years after the GEJE, these lessons in the region of bouncy infrastructure, hazard recognition, reduction and readiness, and DRFI are significant not alone for parts of the world preparing for tsunami and other seismic hazards, but besides for many of the other types of hazards faced around the ball in 2021. In Japan, many of the lessons of the GEJE are being applied to the projected Nankai Trough and Tokyo Inland earthquakes, for example through modelling risks and mapping elimination routes, implementing scenario plan exercises and elimination drills, or even prearranging a post-disaster reconstruction vision and plans. These resilience measures are taken not only individually but besides through advanced partnerships for collaboration across regions, sectors, and organizations including public-private agreements to plowshare resources and expertness in the event of a major calamity. The ten-year anniversary of the GEJE finds the world in the midst of the multiple emergencies of the global COVID-19 pandemic, environmental and technological hazards, and climate change. Beyond seismic hazards, the ball-shaped pandemic has highlighted, for example, the risks of add chain disturbance due to biological emergencies. Climate change is besides increasing hazard exposure in Japan and around the earth. Climate change is a growing concern for its potential to contribute to hydrometeorological hazards such as implosion therapy and hurricanes, and for its likely to play a function in secondary or cascading hazards such as open fire. In the era of climate change, disasters will increasingly be ‘ unprecedented ’, and therefore GEJE offers important lessons on preparing for low-probability high-impact disasters and planning under uncertain conditions in general. Over the last ten, the World Bank has drawn upon the GEJE megadisaster experience to learn how to better prepare for and recover from low-probability high-impact disasters. While we have identified a issue of diverse strategies hera, ranging from technical and geomorphologic innovations to improving the engagement of divers stakeholders, three themes recur throughout infrastructure resilience, risk readiness, and catastrophe finance. First, planning in overture for how organizations will prepare for, answer to, and recover from disasters is all-important, i.e. through the creation of BCPs by both public and individual organizations. second, pre-arranged agreements amongst organizations for sharing resources, cognition, and finance in order to mitigate, prepare, respond and recover together from disasters and other unanticipated events are highly beneficial. Third, only with continuous observation, learning and update on what worked and what didn ’ metric ton oeuvre after each disasters can develop the adaptive capacities needed to manage ever increasing and unexpected risks. Preparedness is an incremental and interactional summons.

These lessons from the GEJE on the importance of BCPs and pre-arranged agreements both emphasize larger principles that can be brought to bear in the context of emergent climate and populace health crises. Both involve planning for the potential of calamity before it strikes. BCPs and pre-arranged agreements are both made under blue-sky conditions, which allow frameworks to be put in place for advance moderation and readiness, and rapid post-disaster response and recovery. While it is impossible to know precisely what future crises a venue will face, these processes much have benefits that make places and organizations better able to act in the face of improbable or unannounced events. The lessons above regarding BCPs and pre-arranged agreements besides highlight that neither the politics nor the private sector alone have all the tools to prepare for and respond to disasters. rather, the GEJE shows the importance of both populace and secret organizations adopting BCPs, and the rate of creating pre-arranged agreements among and across public and private groups. By making catastrophe readiness a key circumstance for all organizations, and bringing divers stakeholders together to make plans for when a crisis strikes, these strengthened networks and planning capacities have the potential to bear benefits not only in an hand brake but in the everyday operations of organizations and countries. back to Top

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