Git – First-Time Git Setup

First-Time Git Setup

now that you have Git on your system, you ’ ll need to do a few things to customize your Git environment. You should have to do these things only once on any given calculator ; they ’ ll adhere around between upgrades. You can besides change them at any time by running through the commands again .
Git comes with a joyride called git config that lets you get and set shape variables that control all aspects of how Git looks and operates. These variables can be stored in three different places :

  1. [path]/etc/gitconfig file : Contains values applied to every user on the arrangement and all their repositories. If you pass the option --system to git config, it reads and writes from this file specifically. Because this is a system shape file, you would need administrative or superuser privilege to make changes to it .
  2. ~/.gitconfig or ~/.config/git/config file : Values specific personally to you, the exploiter. You can make Git read and write to this charge specifically by passing the --global choice, and this affects all of the repositories you work with on your organization.

  3. config file in the Git directory ( that is, .git/config ) of whatever repository you ’ re presently using : specific to that unmarried repository. You can force Git to read from and write to this file with the --local option, but that is in fact the default. Unsurprisingly, you need to be located somewhere in a Git repository for this option to work properly .

Each level overrides values in the former tied, so values in .git/config trump those in [path]/etc/gitconfig .
On Windows systems, Git looks for the .gitconfig charge in the $HOME directory ( C:\Users\$USER for most people ). It besides silent looks for [path]/etc/gitconfig, although it ’ randomness relative to the MSys settle, which is wherever you decide to install Git on your Windows system when you run the installer. If you are using version 2.x or later of Git for Windows, there is besides a system-level config file at C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\Git\config on Windows XP, and in C:\ProgramData\Git\config on Windows Vista and newer. This config file can only be changed by git config -f as an admin .
You can view all of your settings and where they are coming from using :

$ git config --list --show-origin

Your Identity

The foremost thing you should do when you install Git is to set your exploiter name and e-mail address. This is important because every Git entrust uses this information, and it ’ s unalterably baked into the commits you start creating :

$ git config --global "John Doe"
$ git config --global

again, you need to do this only once if you pass the --global option, because then Git will constantly use that information for anything you do on that arrangement. If you want to override this with a different identify or electronic mail address for specific projects, you can run the command without the --global choice when you ’ re in that project .
many of the GUI tools will help you do this when you foremost run them .

Your Editor

now that your identity is set up, you can configure the default option textbook editor that will be used when Git needs you to type in a message. If not configured, Git uses your system ’ randomness default editor .
If you want to use a unlike text editor, such as Emacs, you can do the following :

$ git config --global core.editor emacs

On a Windows system, if you want to use a different text editor program, you must specify the full path to its feasible charge. This can be different depending on how your editor program is packaged.

In the case of Notepad++, a democratic programming editor program, you are likely to want to use the 32-bit version, since at the meter of writing the 64-bit translation doesn ’ t support all plug-ins. If you are on a 32-bit Windows system, or you have a 64-bit editor program on a 64-bit organization, you ’ ll type something like this :

$ git config --global core.editor "'C:/Program Files/Notepad++/notepad++.exe' -multiInst -notabbar -nosession -noPlugin"
note Vim, Emacs and Notepad++ are popular text editors much used by developers on Unix-based systems like Linux and macOS or a Windows system. If you are using another editor, or a 32-bit version, please find specific instructions for how to set up your favored editor program with Git in rotter config core.editor commands .
Warning You may find, if you don ’ thyroxine setup your editor like this, you get into a in truth confusing state when Git attempts to launch it. An case on a Windows system may include a prematurely terminated Git operation during a Git initiated edit .

Your default branch name

By default Git will create a branch called chief when you create a raw repository with git init. From Git interpretation 2.28 onwards, you can set a different name for the initial ramify .
To set main as the default ramify diagnose do :

$ git config --global init.defaultBranch main

Checking Your Settings

If you want to check your configuration settings, you can use the git config --list command to list all the settings Git can find at that detail :

$ git config --list Doe

You may see keys more than once, because Git reads the like key from unlike files ( [path]/etc/gitconfig and ~/.gitconfig, for example ). In this subject, Git uses the last value for each alone cardinal it sees.

You can besides check what Git thinks a particular keystone ’ second value is by typing git config :

$ git config
John Doe
note Since Git might read the same shape variable value from more than one file, it ’ s possible that you have an unexpected prize for one of these values and you don ’ thyroxine know why. In cases like that, you can query Git as to the origin for that value, and it will tell you which shape file had the final allege in setting that value :

$ git config --show-origin rerere.autoUpdate
file:/home/johndoe/.gitconfig	false
source :
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