What is Microsoft Windows Server OS (operating system)? – Definition from https://thefartiste.com

Microsoft Windows Server OS ( operating system ) is a series of enterprise-class server operating systems designed to share services with multiple users and provide extensive administrative operate of data memory, applications and corporate networks .
Development for Windows Server started in the early 1980s when Microsoft produced two operational arrangement lines : ms-dos and Windows NT. Microsoft mastermind David Cutler developed the kernel of Windows NT with the intent to provide focal ratio, security and dependability that big organizations require in a server operate organization .
prior to the exhaust of Windows NT, many companies relied on the Unix operating system that required expensive RISC -based hardware to run file and print services. Windows NT had the ability to run on less costly x86 machines .
A key have in the NT architecture is symmetrical multiprocessing, which makes applications run debauched on machines with several processors.

Later iterations of Windows Server can be deployed either on hardware in an organization ‘s data center or on a cloud chopine, such as Microsoft Azure .
Key features in former versions of Windows Server include Active Directory, which automates the management of drug user data, security and circulate resources, and enables interoperation with other directories ; and Server Manager, which is a utility to administer waiter roles and make configuration changes to local or distant machines .
Microsoft Windows Server OS timeline
A timeline of Windows Server OS versions

History of Windows Server

1993: Windows NT 3.1 Advanced Server

Microsoft released its Windows NT operating system in two formats : one for workstations and the early for servers. The 32-bit operational system featured a hardware abstraction layer ( HAL ), which provided more system stability by blocking applications from steer access to system hardware. Companies could use Advanced Server as a domain control to store exploiter and group rights .

1994: Windows NT 3.5 Server

Microsoft updated key network features in this server handout and added integrated hold for TCP/IP and Winsock. other network improvements allowed users on other non-Microsoft operating systems to access files and applications on the world .

1995: Windows NT Server 3.51

Microsoft fine-tuned this acquittance to boost operation and reduce the total of command memory. This waiter OS was optimized to deliver services faster to users through its update network push-down list. Microsoft added more connectivity subscribe for companies in a blend environment with both Windows NT and NetWare servers to allow users to get services from each with a single certificate .

1996: Windows NT Server 4.0

Microsoft borrowed the Windows 95 interface for this server OS release and besides used many of the applications in the customer OS, such as the File Explorer. Microsoft expanded the network protocol capabilities in this release to make network resources available to a wide array of non-Microsoft machines. Key features in this release were the ability to use a server as an Internet data Server — nowadays called Internet Information Services ( IIS ) — and a knowledge domain mention system server. This server OS besides could walk administrators through respective tasks, such as sharing a hard phonograph record with a feature called administrative Wizards .

2000: Windows 2000

Windows 2000 introduced Active Directory, a directory service that stores and manages information about network objects, including user data, systems and services. active Directory lets administrators perform versatile tasks, such as virtual individual network configuration, data encoding and granting entree to file shares on network computers .
Microsoft besides introduced several early key features in this release, including :

  • Microsoft Management Console (MMC), 
  • NTFS 3.0 file system and
  • support for dynamic disk volumes.

Windows 2000 had three editions — Server, Advanced Server and Datacenter — that were built to work with Windows 2000 Professional, the client OS .

2003: Windows Server 2003

Microsoft introduced the “ Windows Server ” brand with the dismissal of Windows Server 2003 and touted its security improvements over Windows 2000. Microsoft hardened IIS, the web server feature, and disabled more default services to reduce exploit opportunities .
Microsoft introduced waiter roles with this release, which allowed administrators to assign a specific serve to a waiter, such as knowledge domain restrainer or DNS waiter .
other new features in this release included expand encoding functionality, built-in firewall, greater Network Address Translation ( NAT ) support and volume Shadow Copy Service .
Windows Server 2003 had four editions : Standard, Enterprise, Datacenter and Web .

2005: Windows Server 2003 R2

quite than a interpretation number, Microsoft began using the R2 — or release two — appellation with Windows Server 2003 R2. Organizations constantly need to buy a raw Windows Server license to use the new waiter operating system, but R2 releases used the customer entree licenses ( CALs ) of the immediately preceding server adaptation to eliminate the want to upgrade those licenses .
This version improved on the security and safety features in Windows Server 2003 .
Key new features in this free were :

  • Active Directory Federation Services, which lets administrators broaden single sign-on access to applications and systems beyond the corporate firewall.
  • Active Directory Application Mode, which stores data for applications that may be considered not secure enough to use in the Active Directory system.

This adaptation besides added enhancements to file replica and data compression for outgrowth office servers. Among the security improvements in this release was the Security Configuration Wizard, which let administrators apply reproducible security policies to multiple machines .

2008: Windows Server 2008

Windows Server 2008 added new features such as :

  • Hyper-V virtualization software, 
  • failover clustering, 
  • Event Viewer,
  • Server Core — the minimal deployment option managed via the command line, and
  • Server Manager console, used to add and manage server roles and features on local and remote machines.

Microsoft besides overhauled the network batch and Active Directory to enhance its Group Policy and identity management capabilities .
Windows Server 2008 came in four editions : Standard, Enterprise, Datacenter and Web .

2009: Windows Server 2008 R2

Microsoft used its Windows 7 kernel for this server operating system and touted its improved scalability and handiness features .
Microsoft enhanced Active Directory for better handling of exploiter accounts and more farinaceous manipulate with policies. The company besides updated Terminal Services functionality and rechristened it to Remote Desktop Services ( RDS ) .
New features in this publish include BranchCache and DirectAccess, both aimed at improving how users in distant locations are able to get their work done .
This waiter OS, like its harbinger, shares some of the administrative and security functionality used in the Windows Vista customer operating system. Windows Server 2008 R2 besides marked a deepen from a 32-bit server operating system to a 64-bit interpretation .

2012: Windows Server 2012

Microsoft embedded a numeral of cloud-related features to Windows Server 2012, going so far as to dub it the “ Cloud OS, ” so organizations could run services more easily in public or individual clouds. The ship’s company besides made meaning updates to the operate on arrangement ‘s storage infrastructure and Hyper-V virtualization platform .
New features worth noting in this release were the Hyper-V virtual switch, Hyper-V Replica, Storage Spaces and ReFS file system .
In another change with this secrete, Microsoft switched the default installation option to Server Core, which requires administrators to use PowerShell. Upon this liberation, PowerShell had 2,300 cmdlets available for management .
This server translation came in four editions : Essentials, Foundation, Standard and Datacenter. The Standard and Datacenter editions had the same sport set, but a Standard license permitted organizations to run two virtual machines ( VMs ), while Datacenter permitted an outright number of VMs .

2013: Windows Server 2012 R2

Microsoft made expansive changes across the board with Windows Server 2012 R2, including significant updates to virtualization, storage, network, information security and vane services .
New features of note :

  • Desired State Configuration (DSC) built on PowerShell to prevent configuration drift and maintain consistency across the organization’s machines.
  • Storage tiering added to Storage Spaces boosts performance by automatically moving frequently called blocks of data to solid-state storage.
  • Work Folders allow users to retrieve and save company files on work and personal devices through replication to servers in the organization’s data center.

2016: Windows Server 2016

Microsoft nudged enterprises closer to the defile with a number of newfangled features tailored to ease workload migrations, such as corroborate for Docker containers and software-defined enhancements in network .
Microsoft debuted Nano Server, a minimal server deployment option intended to boost security by shrinking the attack vector. Microsoft says Nano Server is 93 % smaller than a full Windows Server deployment .
Another nod to security comes in the modern Hyper-V shielded VM feature, which uses encoding to prevent data inside a VM from being compromised .
The Network Controller is a key new network have that allows administrators to manage the switches, subnets and other devices on the virtual and physical networks .
This server OS comes in Standard and Datacenter editions. In previous Windows Server versions, the Standard and Datacenter editions had the same feature set, but different license rights and use restrictions. In Windows Server 2016, the Standard version does not have the more advanced features in virtualization, repositing and network .

2017: Semi-Annual Channel and Long-Term Servicing Channel releases

In June 2017, Microsoft announced it would split Windows Server into two channels : the Semi-Annual Channel ( SAC ) and the Long-Term Servicing Channel ( LTSC ) — once the long-run Servicing Branch .
The SAC caters to enterprises with a DevOps framework that prefer a shorter term between feature of speech updates to get the most late updates for rapid application growth cycles. SAC releases will come every six months — one in the give and one in the fall — with mainstream support of merely 18 months. Microsoft tailors the LTSC for companies that prefer the more traditional spill cycle of two to three years between major feature updates with the distinctive five years of mainstream support followed by five years of extended support.

The LTSC naming convention will retain the Windows Server YYYY format — such as Windows Server 2016 — while the SAC releases will follow a format of Windows Server interpretation YYMM. Microsoft said it plans to add most of the enhancements — with some variations — from the SAC releases into upcoming LTSC releases .
Microsoft released its first SAC unblock — Windows Server version 1709 — in October 2017. Highlights of this dismissal were support for Linux containers with kernel isolation provided by Hyper-V and a refactored Nano Server rigorously for practice as a basis OS container persona .
Businesses with Software Assurance on their Windows Server Standard or Datacenter licenses or a Microsoft Developer Network ( MSDN ) license can download the SAC releases from Microsoft ‘s bulk Licensing Service Center. Organizations without Software Assurance can use SAC releases in Azure or another mottle or hosting environment .

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Category : Tech

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