2To adapt comes from the Latin apere ( to bind, to attach ). Its past form, aptus ( apte ), when added to the saying ad ( to, towards ) created the verb adaptare ( to adjust to, in prediction of ) ( Rey, 2006 ). Borrowed from the Latin in the thirteenth hundred, to adapt appeared in a tangible sense ( to apply ), then in an pilfer sense ( to put in accordance with something ). Some uses of the verb have disappeared ( to adapt against person ). The present use of to adapt emerged in the sixteenth hundred, along with a few early derived meanings ( aptitude, to appropriate or to adhere ) ( Rey-Debove and Rey, 2007 ). “ Adaptation ” derives from the Medieval Latin bible adaptatio, testified in the thirteenth hundred, but generalized in French and then in English in the sixteenth hundred to designate the action of adapt, the smell of align. rhetorically, the term expresses the suitability to a situation ( 1578 ), a intend that was revived in the nineteenth century to indicate the transformation of a study into a new form. In 1789, « the allowance between two things » is the lone definition that was mentioned ( Cormon, 1789 ). In the nineteenth century, due to the expansion of biology, adaptation included the idea of modification and finally gained its wax semantic dimension through trans-disciplinary appropriation, notably by psychology, and its transposition to sociology ( Taché, 2003 ). The antonym inadaptation, which appeared in 1931, besides comes from the Latin inaptus, giving awkward or inappropriate. It remains used in psychology, only as disadaptation ( 1894 ), ( passing of adaptation ) and readaptation ( 1904 ) .
3Adaptation takes its conceptual glory from the hypothesis of evolution, a subject that for a long time has been skimmed over and that poses the interrogate “ What is life ? ” ( Smit and Wandel, 2006 ; Lambert and Rezsöhazy, 2004 ). One of the first writings to suggest the notion of the development of life by adaptation to the milieu is attributed to Anaximander ( Obenga, 2005 ). There were a few other references in Empedocles and Democritus. then, Aristotle deal with “ The influence of climate on animals ” and “ The charm of the milieu on the behavior of animals ” and defended a teleological vision in which all biological development takes target within a final, pre-established perspective : “ The identical shape that nature imagined for the hired hand is adapted to the function of seizing and holding ” ( Labarrière, 2005 ; Aristotle quoted in Piveteau, 1991 ). In the early middle-ages, aristotelian doctrine, rediscovered and translated, was mix with the precepts of the Catholic Church by Thomas Aquinas. His fixist influence prevented any debate regarding the sciences of biography to emerge until the scientific renewal in the seventeenth hundred. The bonds between natural and live circles were limited to observing the appearances of illnesses under certain environmental conditions ( Moran, 2000 ). The arrival of the inaugural development theories during the nineteenth hundred clashed with the established concept of a life that was descended from a divine creation. This generated an epistemic fracture and, from this, adaptation was born. The estimate of an evolutionary adaptation comes from the notion of adaptation to the natural environment, the back bone of Lamarck ’ mho theories ( 1809 ) and influenced by Buffon and Maupertuis. Lamarck saw in know beings the capacity to stick to “ inflowing circumstances ” ( the bent of the external actions that are implemented nowadays in the notion of environment ) in developing certain organic functions, according to want. This transformist adaptation was perceived as a continuous effort of the living to benefit from the milieu in which it evolves. once acquired, adaptation was familial. The ideas of underground and survival preponderated. The environment, devoted to itself and subjected to its own laws, ignores the support ( Canguilhem, 1952 ). The darwinian explanation of a natural choice as an evolve, driving force eclipsed the lamarckian adaptation, which was then perceived as a simple resultant role of evolvements and not a process, before the former besides came to a absolutely end when faced with the rediscovery of work in genetics and the notion of constitution. Rabaud ’ s work on biological adaptation ( 1922 ) and, subsequently, Cuénot ’ sulfur ( 1925 ) marked the beginning of a golden era for the enrichment of the notion of adaptation. In the moment half of the twentieth hundred, contributions were made by new sciences, such as cybernetics, and the advancements in information theories, angstrom well as thermodynamics of open systems. First defined on an person grade, the concept was then studied on a corporate homo scale ( Orlove, 2005 ). The research in the 1990s on auto-organization, complexity and systemics contributed to the refining of adaptation thus creating a concept. Despite all of these achievements, adaptation remains a prisoner of its etymology. This refers simultaneously to an natural process ( process ) and finality ( state of matter ) as a consequence, the terminological dichotomy resumed by “ the adaptation state ” and the “ adaptation process ” discussed by Piaget ( 1967 ). The difficulty of interpretation resides in the homo sensing of time. The observe adaptations seem to be relatively static when they are the results of constant development ( Bocquet, 2002 ). This ambivalence originates from both semantic wealth and a level of promote expression, as witnessed in its transdisciplinary use .
4Originating chiefly in studies of the living, the concept of adaptation remains the center of concenter in biota, borrowing divers terminologies ( biological, physiologic and evolutionist adaptations ) ( Bock, 1980 ). however, despite the construction of the theory of adaptation, the semantic dichotomy of the term renders the definition and comprehension of the concept unmanageable to grasp. Hence, it remains elusive and non-consensual, despite its many different contributions ( Huneman, 2005 ). To globally summarize, biological adaptation can be defined as “ is adapted a living being. ” This short cut that was inspired by Laborit ( 1976 ) introduced the idea that, if a being lives and reproduces, it is because it has adjusted its biological functions to its external conditions. Morin adheres to this general idea by affirming that adaptation is the prime and general condition of all being ( Morin, 1985 ). In greater detail, biological adaptation designates above all a process that can be transposed at an individual degree, resulting from genic constitution at a cellular level. thus, the immune organization is adequate to of sensing and skill on a physiologic level. This process is then qualified as “ acclimatization ” or “ apprenticeship ” ( Prochiantz, 1997 ; Stewart, 1994 ). At a species level, the concept of adaptation is the solution of a long term evolution produced by lifelike excerpt. The spatial scale can reach that of a population, an ecosystem or even Earth, as maintained by the Gaia guess in its definition of the Earth as “ a dynamic, physiologic arrangement that includes the biosphere and maintains our planet in harmony with life ” ( Lovelock, 1969, p. 30 ). however, biological adaptation besides describes the product ( state, character ) of the evolve processes. Gould and Vrba, in particular, see a character as an adaptation if it fulfils a role for an individual in the present whereas Bock ( 1980 ) defines a character as an adaptation if it contributes to the generative achiever of the person. These subtleties guide Reeve and Sherman ( 1993 ) to emphasize the importance of defining adaptation in an allow manner in relation to the problem addressed.
5The interactions between the organisms and their environment and the mechanism of adaptation are now well understand. The LEGO bricks doctrine of analogy is often used to explain how each essential, elementary functions are insured by distinct biological modules which are finely adapted to their detail character ( see for exemplify Csete et Doyle, 2002 ). This modular organization is robust and at the same prison term flexible : when a newfangled trait emerges, natural excerpt does not start from scribble, but from the available modules : existing organs, tissues and cells, existing genes and gene networks. By combining modules—the LEGO bricks—within an organism it is possible to make something new. A common composition that has emerged from analyses in evolutionary biology is therefore that organisms are robust and flexible systems. If the surroundings of an organism change, its developmental systems provide the ability to adapt to achieve and maintain some affair ( Breuker, 2006 ). Robustness and tractability are frankincense two antinomic properties that result from modularity. This “ property of the systems that are susceptible to deforming themselves in a coherent and autonomous manner in order to respond to home and external try, ” ( Lambert and Rezsöhazy, 2004, p. 304 ) is called malleability and is seen as the real “ adaptive capacity ” of life .
6Research into the temporal role dimension of evolving adaptation has been more theoretical. Its trouble of creation lies in the remainder between the time scale of the human observations and that of the history of life. The adaptive landscapes developed by Wright ( 1932 ), and then Kauffman ( 1993 ), enable a representation of the adaptive mechanism of evolution through time. Symbolized by a series of cubic pikes, on which altitude represents the level of adaptability, it emphasizes the mind of malleability and multistationarity, characteristics of life ’ sulfur processes. In see to the travel rapidly of evolutionary adaptation, Eldredge and Gould ’ s hypothesis of punctuate equilibrium ( 1972 ) brought forth the mind of an alternation between periods of balance and of intensive changes. It differs itself from the changeless temporal gradualism that has been associated with development since Darwin. In the Red Queen theory proposed by Van Valen ( 1973 ), organism maintain a continuous attempt of co-evolution with the aim of survival based upon the precede of a constancy of change of environmental conditions. ultimately, as to knowing if need creates adaptation or the revoke, Cuénot ( 1925 ) envisaged preadaptation, in which an organism acquires a useful characteristic before needing it, a limited concept due to its finalist vision. Gould and Vrba ( 1982 ) proposed the concept of “ exadaptation, ” which evokes the characteristics of an organism that is initially developed for a serve other than its stream serve. Exadaptation corresponds to Jacob ’ s idea : “ the real is but one amongst countless possible others ” ( see Barrette, 2000 for a discussion of this estimate ). Exadaptation enlarges the explanations of the appearance of organs or behaviors by creating a large possibility off chance and the individual within a non-teleological dimension ( finality study ). therefore, want is no longer seen as the sole godhead of functions : “ the interview of whether the need create the organ or vice versa is thus a non-problem ( … ) that exists merely when creation or apparition is conceived ( … ) the answer is : neither the first nor the second, but a combination of the two ” ( Barrette, 2000 ) .
7Influenced by biology, the concept of adaptation has been at the heart of psychological model since its lineage in psychological adaptation. It is defined as the process of unceasing interaction between Man and the changing worldly concern within which he evolves. It is like a complex active that articulates the different actions of the subject, american samoa well as the unlike processes that enable the emergence of transformation perspectives ( Jakubowitcz, 2002 ). These are updated by the process of information process and decision make, to act recursively on the internal organization of the subject, giving it the possibility ( ability ? opportunity ? ) to adapt to new situations ( Taché, 2003 ). The subject is never isolated from the collectives in which he participates and the other ( actor, site, constitution ) is a stakeholder in adaptation scenarios. This sphere besides distinguishes the faculty of adaptation, the aptitude of an individual to modify his structure or behavior in order to respond to modern situations. Clinical psychology has unravelled an idea of the complex adaptation as a leave of the discovery of the unconscious via psycho-analysis and its implications in the summons of one ’ sulfur identity. Social psychology, ampere well, developed a definition of adaptation using a reflexive pronoun dynamic from “ trans-construction ” in which the subjects ’ values and those of the environment or organizations are adjusted. genic psychology developed the concept of adaptation by positioning it in a constructivist model ( theory of skill ). This inhale Piaget to conclude ( 1967 ) that the subject ’ s adaptation comes from the ongoing search for a proportion ( equilibrium ) between the processes of assimilation and accommodation, and remains inseparable from cognition and the act of organizing. Thus Piaget distinguishes between the adaptation state ( associated with the blockage, reconstitution and administration of the system ) and the adaptation summons ( associated with the first step and exchanges of this same organization ). psychological adaptation besides hinges on maladaptation. These two antonyms form a frontier on which the human subject is constantly evolving. Maladaptation is associated with the opinion of discrepancy between oneself and others and can be the informant of divine guidance, withdrawal or psychic dysfunctions. It is treated by social excommunication since the capability to adapt is considered to be the best indicator of mental good health ( Rouillon, 1996 ). broadly speaking, world is evolutionally maladapted, despite its huge adaptation electric potential, as witnessed by its long post-natal dependence, even though it originated in collective structure due to its obligation to cooperation ( Taché, 2003 ). In paradox, the city, which is a project of collective dimension, concentrates the factors of maladaptation and the sources of stress, particularly those that are related to the substantial environment and the cycle of life. These are urbanization, travel and the importance of the multitude media ( Scotto, 1996 ). In addition, stress represents the reaction of adaptation to the constraints of the environment and is an essential reaction for survival. To be more precise, stress is the procedure of transaction between the individual and the milieu at the origin of behavioral and psychological adjustments that the individual must undertake to re-establish his internal balance when faced with events and their interpretation that threatens his integrity or wellbeing ( Trudel et alabama, 2001 ). When the constraints continue, the adaptation system becomes exhausted and “ adaptation ” illnesses appear ( asthma, ulcers, high blood pressure or psychosomatic diseases ) ( Plancherel, 2001 ). By emphasizing the importance of perception and rendition in a situation that is perceived to be nerve-racking, Lazarus and Folkman ( 1984 ) specify “ coping ” or adaptive strategies as cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage stress and to know how to dispose of the necessary resources available to enable this. At the frontier between psychology and liberal biota, the evolutionist psychology that was proclaimed to be darwinian appeared in the 1980s and 1990s. It is sometimes considered to be a change of direction of socio-biology, a hypothesis exposed by Wilson ( 1975 ) that sees, in sociable demeanor, adaptations of generative behaviors, frankincense seeking an optimum propagation of genes. This field became controversial when applied to Man because of the setting digression of psychological and social aspects that are curious to the species ( Sperber and Hirshfield, 1999 ). Evolutionistic psychologists are interesting themselves in the development of the homo brain, which they consider to be the link between genes and behaviors and acting as a center of information process that is cast by natural survival to resolve, in an adaptive way, the problems encountered by our hunter-gathering ancestors ( Cosmides and Tooby, 1997 ) .
8Anthropology studies the development of human cultures and the cultural and biological changes that have unfolded on the erratic scale. It looks at the manner in which individuals and groups adapt to their environment by measuring the costs/benefits and successes/failures of these changes. The term adaptation is largely missing from the dictionaries and glossaries of french anthropology, whereas we find the terms adaptation and/or alteration in English ( Bonte and Izard, 2007 ). however, the concept of adaptation remains an crucial concept in anthropology, notably within the american school ( Robson, 1978 ). It is defined as the serve through which organisms or populations of organisms make biological or behavioral adjustments that will facilitate or assure their generative achiever, and consequently survival, in their environment. The achiever or failure of adaptive responses can only be measured on a long term basis and the consequences of the ascertained behaviors on development are not predictable ( Bates, 2005 ). From the time of its scientific advent, ( nineteenth hundred ) anthropology adopted an evolutionist approach that was influenced by Darwin ’ second work directly. The application of darwinian theories to the development of cultures and societies assumed a singular sequence of exploitation in the development of societies. however, adaptation did not play a central role in these evolutionist theories within which determinism prevailed. The anthropology of the twentieth century developed around the criticism of these evolutionist theories, moving the analysis toward the sketch of morphologic and functional configurations peculiar to any given society ( Bonte, 2007 ). It is within union american anthropology that the concept of adaptation took supreme headquarters allied powers europe in the deep 1950s. This was a period during which Steward elaborated his multi-linear evolution theory within which cultures evolve in a clear-cut manner according to their own environments. In this way, the cultures that existed in comparable environments had a leaning to formulate alike responses when faced with environmental challenges ( McGee and Warms, 2004 ). The develop methodology implicated cultural ecology, which examines cultural adaptations of human beings to surpass the barriers set by their environment ( Guille-Escuret, 2007 ). nowadays, we find the concept of cultural adaptation in social anthropology, which includes all behaviors and acquired responses ( socially or by learning ) that affect homo survival ( reproduction, provisioning and habitat ), such as oral communication. This is a type of cultural and biological adaptation that is responsible for the development of human polish, which co-evolved with the human brain, each provoke and strengthening the other. One of the keys to the work of adaptation is biological or behavioral variation, thereby implicating the notion of choice and the processes of decisiveness make ( Bates, 2005 ).
9Despite loop roots with biology, sociology rarely uses the concept of adaptation, preferring the terms “ socialization, ” “ aberrance ” or “ socialization ” ( Étienne et aluminum, 2005 ). however, the concept of adaptation exists in sociology by social adaptation. It is found in changes in the individual at the beginning of the development of aptitudes to integrate and acquire the feel of belonging to a group ( Boudon, 2002 ). Social and cultural adaptations have several aspects in common through inadaptation and psychological adaptation and adjust to the concepts of social consolidation and socialization. Socialization requires an individual to have interiorized and integrated the models, values and symbols of the milieu to the structure of his personality in order to communicate and evolve with still. Social adaptation, however, does not signify “ conformity ” as the adaptation to a milieu can introduce the notion of invention or modification ( Rocher, 1992 ). Furthermore, the sociological theories of adaptation and the sociological analysis of integration are complemental and participate in the enrichment of adaptation in a more cosmopolitan smell. The sociology of the nineteenth century, influenced by biology, saw the appearance of theory of evolution, which searched for laws at the beginning of sociable transformations in time. At the begin of the twentieth century, evolutionist sociology was criticized by functionalism, sociology of conflict and individualism. This influenced new waves through the concept of change. In turn, this enabled the concept of adaptation to be re-born ( Taché, 2003 ). The contribution of newfangled sciences created epistemic ruptures. From this emerged the concept of mutuality, the premise of the complex and systemic sociology that was instigated by Morin and in which adaptation draws the necessity from its conceptualization. Morin ’ sulfur work, sometimes closer to epistemology than to sociology, connects social anthropology to the sciences of nature using the concepts of systems and organization, therefore redefined ( Durand and Weil, 2006 ). adaptation is consequently conceived as the march central to change by which a complex system can raise its complexity by lowering its constraints. Morin ( 1985 ) emphasizes that the concept is wired to a conceptual coil mixing auto-organization that integrates an eco-organization, thus participating in Evolution. The notion of adaptation is itself submit to change and transformation. therefore, Taché ( 2003 ) proposes a generic definition of the adaptation of the complex systems that integrates a wide range of notions. He ends his workplace on the sociologic deduction within the complex march adaptation on a theoretical degree, a well as a horizontal surface of interposition, notably within the existing ball-shaped context that is characterized by numerous changes and uncertainties. In the 1950s, using his general theory of action, Parsons developed the function of adaptation in the context of the legal action system represented by social actors and defined by the mutuality of the under systems ( cultural, social, psychic, biological ) and the system of action with its environment. consequently, the function of adaptation is a star of arrangement that enables one to understand the relative between parts of the organization, vitamin a well as the system as a whole. It deals with all the means that the system and its members must use in the pursuit of goals. In this way, adaptation becomes an monocot march that enables the system to either assimilate the invention, or to modify its internal structure in order to assimilate this invention. The subject of adaptation is besides treated in the sociology of organizations, Faced with deepen ( social, economic, technical ), there exist organizations that are resistant to adaptation, but which must transform to avoid fade by accepting a gradual and permanent change, rather than an weather and brutal variety. Henceforth, the collective apprenticeship impression of the actors of fresh ways of being and doing constitutes social adjustments that represent the system that is changing with meter. In this vein, the cogitation of the relations of world power by the strategic and systematic psychoanalysis developed by Crozier and Friedberg ( 1977 ) enabled them to show that the actor is unblock to take a step back from expectations in choosing a group of possibilities, quite than passively adapting to his structure .
10The concept of adaptation as used in geography comes close to the notion of natural milieu, which implicates the integration of the forcible to the social and of the natural to the cultural. This notion first developed in a fatalist sense in its relation with living beings before integrating a complex imagination, interdisciplinary and systemic ( Blanc-Pamard, 2007 ). The contributions on geographic distribution and the influence of the milieu on the populations appeared in the eighteenth century in the awaken of maritime exploration. The explanatory argument was of cleric intent, which has “ constantly welcomed environmental theories because both systems rest on the concept of adaptation ” of the surviving to its environment ( Glacken, 2005 ). The estimate of a humanness that modifies its milieu ( by collective natural process, according to A. Comte ) appeared in the nineteenth century, creating the notions of lifelike or transform landscape. Just as in biology, the concept of adaptation in geography was debated during an epistemic analysis that was guided by reflections on the importance to be given to mankind in nature. several authors focused on the influence of the milieu on world, his culture or his character traits. The behaviorism marked the extreme : the milieu, endowed with a herculean influence, dominates the heredity and the genetics of the person ; behaviors are neurobiological responses or adaptations to stimuli of the milieu. The limits that the environment imposes on life are besides evoked ( Malthus, Boas ). The acceleration of technical build up on the origin of resources, cognition on the transformations of nature, and then on development, precipitated the emergence of a multi-disciplinary learn of the relation back of man/nature ( Moran, 2000 ). A geography that integrates homo beings emerged to counterbalance the forcible geography that prevailed ( Reghezza, 2007 ). In the United States, links wove between ecology and geography touched the unlike schools of think of the twentieth century. The 1920s saw an urban sociology that was formed to study the relative between man and his urban environment that had become man ’ sulfur natural environment in society ( Philifert, 2007 ). The Chicago school of geography borrowed the concept of adaptation to geography to define it as the fruit of consider choice, sol as to escape the constraints of the milieu, therefore distancing itself from biological determinism descended from natural choice and leaning more on the impression of adaptation : the object of geography is the allowance of man to the environment and not to the influence of this environment ( Barrows, in Reghezza, 2007 ). Henceforth, this notion of alteration, an episodic reaction to a punctual consequence, strayed from the concept of adaptation, a long draw out process, the capability of which allows the reduction of the vulnerability of social systems faced with any crisis ( Burton et al., 1993 ). In the 1960s, research into natural disasters questioned the interactions between the sociable system and environment, arsenic well as the social response, when faced with a risk. The interdisciplinary works were orientated towards the analysis of adaptation of populations to the natural risks by the capacity to front and respond to them, the cogitation of the choices of engineers in public politics, and the analysis of the determine of perceptive and cognitive factors, a well as the refinement of the concept of vulnerability. recently, a geography of adaptation was mentioned by Mainguet ( 2003 ) during his studies on the importance of man in dry environments, whereas Pumain ( 2007 ) defined cities as many building complex and evolving objects that are endowed with a remarkable capability for adaptation and transformation .
11The biological evolution of be beings and climate evolution are closely related. The theme of inconstancy of past climate goes second to the scientific discoveries of the eighteenth century. Beyond climate determinism that aims to explain human diverseness ( cultural, sociable, cerebral and artistic ) through climate causality, climate variations have played a function in homo history ( Acot, 2003 ). The hypothesis of the origin of bipedism suggests a physiological adaptation of hominids after an authoritative drought. The hired hand development, the cognitive and social elements that favored the production of food and besides the evolution of culture and speech can be linked in one direction or another to climate fluctuations ( Orlove, 2005 ). Certain periods of balmy climate conditions aided the expansion of farmable areas or resources, enabling the development of social structures ( Diamond, 2005 ). therefore, since individuals have constantly adapted to climate, there is a hard probability that they will continue to do then. however, despite an influence on an erstwhile regional scale, the appearance of climatic changes induced by man on the planetary scale is unprecedented ( Füssel, 2007 ). The particularity of this phenomenon resides in the amphetamine of its development, the uncertainty of its extent and human responsibility, equally well as the deduction of multiple, interrelate causes ( IPCC, 2007 ). consequently, climate change is at the forefront of humanity ’ s limits of experience, or is even wholly new, as was the Chernobyl calamity ( Alexievitch, 2004 ). For this rationality, the motivation to learn from past and present adaptations, to understand their processes and to grasp the mechanism of the agents of switch ( states, markets and civil company ) becomes pressing ( Adger et alabama, 2003 ).
12Throughout its transdisciplinary polysemy, the concept of adaptation consists of pertinent viewpoints for clarifying adaptation to climate switch or evening for the environment sciences in general as environment, interdisciplinarity and adaptation can be well linked ( see table 1 and 2 ). indeed, today the notion of adaptation capacity includes numerous interdisciplinary aspects of the root of the environment. It is because of this interdisciplinarity that the concept of adaptation becomes a entail for reflecting upon the liaison between the environment and society in a systemic position of reciprocal actions ( Reghezza, 2007 ). There is, consequently, a growing interest in the study and research of solutions to the trouble of multifactorial origins descended from actual acceleration of ball-shaped environmental and socio-economic changes. Henceforth, the stallion challenge lies in the execution of the theoretical aspects of the concept of adaptation. This is a delicate degree, in light of adaptation ’ mho complex dual etymological history that entwines it with other concepts. Following his study in biology, Cuénot qualified adaptation as “ a awful question ” because of the philosophical and metaphysical considerations that it presupposes ( Cuénot, 1925 ) .
mesa 1. Summary of diverse definitions of adaptation and associated concepts according to several fields .Zoom Original (jpeg, 60k) postpone 2. compendious of coarse notions, resulting from respective interdisciplinary definitions of the adaptation concept that can be relevant for adaptation to climate change .Zoom Original (jpeg, 95k)