Adaptation and the Form-Function Complex on JSTOR

1. A feature ( = character, trait, depart ) is any branch of the organism in terms of the detail method acting of investigation ( accurate definitions of these respective concepts may be found in the textbook ). Its form may be defined as its material composition and arrangement of these materials ; a feature may have one fixed class or one that changes slowly ( e.g., a bone ) or quickly ( e.g., a brawn ). Its function is its action or simply how the feature works-as stem from the forcible and chemical properties of the form ; a feature may have several functions that operate simultaneously or at different times. A faculty is defined as the combination of a shape and a officiate of a sport ; it is what the feature is capable of doing in the life of the organism. The biological character is the action or the use of the faculty by the organism in the course of its life history. A biological function can be ascertained only by observation of the organism living naturally in its normal environment. 2. The environment of an organism is the external environment and consists of all external factors, physical and biotic, which interact in some way with the organism. The umgebung or prospective habitat of an organism are those factors of the environment which possibly could be utilized by that organism or which possibly could act upon that organism. The umgebung is normally called the habitat of the organism and may be defined without the actual presence of that organism. The umwelt or the species-specific habitat are those factors of the environment which are actually being used by the organism or which are actually acting upon it ; the umwelt can be established merely with the presence of the organism. environmental factors shift between the umgebung and umwelt as the organism begins and ceases to use them. The factors of the umwelt are those that interact with the organism and thereby exert “ pressures ” on the organism ; these are the choice forces acting on the species. 3. The interaction between the organism and its environment is through a pair formed by the biological character and the selection effect. This interaction may be called a synerg which is defined as a link between the organism and its umwelt formed by one selection impel of the umwelt and one biological function of a faculty of the organism. The recess of an organism is defined as the kernel of all of its synergs and hence it is the full relationship between the solid organism and its complete umwelt. 4. biological adaptation has always been interpreted as an interaction between the organism and its environment ; it is used in three different ways in evolutionary studies. Universal adaptation is the bond between living organisms and their environment and is an absolute property of life that can neither increase or decrease. physiological adaptation is the ability of tissues to modify phenotypically in reaction to environmental stimuli and is a especial encase of the general rationale that the phenotype is an expression of the genotype in a particular environment. evolutionary adaptation is the long term, familial adjustment of an organism to a especial plant of environmental conditions ; the particular environmental conditions must constantly be established first. 5. An evolutionary adaptation is a faculty of a feature which interacts with the umwelt through a synerg formed by a biological function coupled with a survival push. adaptation of the entire organism would be to its umwelt with the bond being the niche. The degree of evolutionary adaptation, the submit of being, is defined as the minimal come of energy required by the organism to maintain successfully the synerg if a single biological role of a faculty is considered, or to maintain successfully its recess if the wholly organism is considered. evolutionary adaptation, the process, is any evolutionary change which reduces the measure of energy required to maintain successfully a synerg, or the niche, as the case may be, toward the minimal possible sum. 6. respective aspects of biological adaptation, such as preadaptation and choice, are discussed concisely. The general problem of evolutionary build up was mentioned but not discussed. As a general conclusion, it was emphasized that all evolutionary mechanisms can be studied best by working forward through time and without the aid of hindsight.

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