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The branch of Biology dealing with interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment is called ecology
Which of the following descriptions about the organization of an ecosystem is correct Species make up populations, which make up communities
The simplest grouping of more than one kind of organism in the biosphere is a community
The lowest level of environmental complexity that includes living and nonliving factors is the ecosystem
Which ecological inquiry method is an ecologist using when he or she enters an area periodically to count the population numbers of certain species observing
A mathematical formula designed to predict population fluctuations in a community could be called a(n) ecological model
Plants are primary producers
How do most primary producers make their own food by using light energy to make carbohydrates
Which of the following organisms does NOT require sunlight to live chemosynthetic bateria
Compared to land, the open oceans are nutrient-poor environments
In which way plants in a sunny mountain meadow and sulfur bacteria in a deep-sea volcanic vent alike they both produce carbohydrates and oxygen
Corn planted in a field that has been previously planted with legumes and then plowed under is likely to be more productive because bacteria living on the roots of legumes fix nitrogen in the soil
All the interconnected feeding relationships in a ecosystem make up food web
The total amount of living tissue within given trophic level is called the biomass
Which in an ecological model of the relationships that form a network of complex feeding interactions among organisms in a community from producers to decomposers food web
Which animals eat both producers and consumers omnivores
What is the term for each step in the transfer of energy and matter within a food web trophic level
A bird stalks, kills and then eats an insect. Based on the behavior, which pair of ecological terms describes the bird carnivore, consumer
What are the three kinds of ecological pyramids energy, biomass and numbers
Only 10 percent of the energy stored in an organism can be passed on to the next trophic level. Of the remaining energy, some is used for the organism’s life process and the rest is eliminated as heat
A word that means the same thing as consumer is heterptroph
Matter can recycle through the biosphere because biological systems do NOT use up matter, they transform it
The repeated movement of water between Earth’s surface and the atmosphere is called the water cycle
Carbon cycles through the biosphere in all the following processes EXCEPT decomposition of plants and animals
Which part of the water cycle is a biological process transiration
Nitrogen fixation is carried out primarily by bacteria
Which of the following has a direct role in the nitrogen cycle all of the above
Organisms need nutrients in order to carry out essential life functions
The movements of energy and nutrients through living systems are different because energy flows in one direction and nutrients recycle
Biogeochemical cycling ensures that living organisms will not become limited in any one nutrient
What can happen after a lake receives large input of a limiting nutrient an algal bloom occurs
Why can’t the producers in some ecosystems make an unlimited supply of organic material energy needed to make organic material is lost as heat
Animals that get energy by eating that carcasses of other animals that have been killed by predators or have died of natural causes are called scavengers
Phosphorus is very important for living things because organisms need phosphorus to form DNA and RNA
Each of the following is an abiotic factor in the environment EXCEPT plant life
Which is biotic factor that affects the size of a population in a specific ecosystem number and kinds of predators in the ecosystem
During a long period when there is no rainfall, a mountain lion may temporarily leave its usual hunting territory to drink from a farm pond. this behavior is due to the change in abiotic factor in its environment
Which is an example of how biotic and abiotic factors interact tree roots split apart rocks in the ground
What is at the base of all ecological pyramids producers
One of the main characteristics of a population is its habitat
There are 150 Saguaro cactus plants per square kilometer in a certain area of the Arizona desert. To which population characteristics does this information refer geographic range
What does the range of population tell you that density does not the areas inhabited by a population
Which of the following tells you population density the number of births per year
Which of the following is NOT one of the factors that play a role in population growth rate demography
The movement of organisms into a range is called immigration
Which of the following describes a population as its size decreases the death rate becomes higher than the birthrate
If immigration and emigration numbers remain equal, which is the most important contributing factor to a slowed growth rate constant birthrate
Which are two ways a population can decrease in size decreased birthrate and emigration
Suppose that a species of toads is introduced into a new environment in an attempt to reduce the population of insects. The toad has no natural predators in the new environment. The toad population would most likely increase exponentially
During some kinds of population growth, the size of each generation of offspring is larger than the generation before it. So, as the population gets larger, it grows more quickly. This situation is called exponential growth
Which factor might NOT contribute to an exponential growth rate in a given population reduced resources
The various growth phases through which most populations go are represented on a logical growth curve
As resources in a population become less available, the population declines rapidly
In a logistic growth curve, exponential growth is the phases in which the population grows quickly
When the exponential phase of a logistic growth curve of a population ceases population growth begins to slow down
How are Phase 1 and Phase 2 of logistic growth similar A population is increasing, moving toward its carrying capacity during both phases
Something that controls the growth or size of a population is a limiting factor
Sea otters live in the ocean. Which of the following is NOT likely to be a limiting factor on the sea otter population drought
Which will reduce competition within a species population fewer individuals
If a population grows larger than the carrying capacity of the environment, the death rate may rise
Water lilies do NOT grow in desert sand because water availability to these plants in a desert is a limiting factor
Each of the following is a density-dependent limiting factor EXCEPT temperature
Which would be least likely to be affected by a density-dependent limiting factor a small, scattered population
Which density-dependent factors other than the predator/prey relationship affected the populations of moose and wolves on Isle Royale food availability for the moose and disease for the wolf
Which of the following is a density-independent limiting factor disease and predator/prey relationships
After a natural disaster such as hurricane or a drought, a population can be mostly killed off
It is difficult to observe examples of completely density-independent limiting factors because density-independent limiting factors usually do NOT have any effect on populations
Demography is the scientific study of human popluations
About 500 years ago, the world’s population started growing more rapidly
Countries in the first stage of demographic transition have a high death rate and a high birthrate
The human population experienced exponential growth after the Industrial Revolution began
The anticipated human population by the year 2050 is about 9 billion
In Rwanda, there are more young children than teenagers and more teenagers than adults. This age structure indicates a population that has a steady growth rate
In countries like India, the human population is growing demographically
Most of the worldwide human population is growing exponentially because most countries have not yet completed the demographic transition
The human population in Canada contains almost equal numbers of people in each age group. This means that the population in Canada will grow slowly by steadily
Which of the following has the disadvantage of possibly bringing two recessive alleles together and causing a genetic defect inbreeding
Which of the following explains how teosinte may have been selectively bred to produce corn Teosinte plants were hybridized with corn plants and the resulting hybrids with the desired traits were inbred
To create animals that have the characteristics of both species, some people have bred buffalo and cattle together. this is an example of hybridization
Which of the following could include all the others selective breeding
Certain drugs can be used in plant breeding to make polyploid plants. These drugs frequently cause mutations, which create new alleles and genes
Suppose a bacterial culture was transformed with recombinant plasmids containing a gene for resistance to penicillin. The bacterial culture was then treated with penicillin. Which of the following statements will happen to the transformed bacteria they will become polyploid
during transformation foreign DNA is inserted into a plasmid
Which protein creates DNA fragments with sticky ends lysozyme
A gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that have been transformed by a plasmid from those that have not is called a resistance gene
Which of the following joins two pieces of DNA together DNA ligase
The process of making changes in DNA code of a living organism is called genetic engineering
A DNA molecule produced by combining DNA from different sources is known as a hybrid
If a restriction enzyme leaves a sticky end with the sequence TTAA, what will the sequence of the complementary sticky end be AAtt
Which of the following would require the use of recombinant DNA breeding a donkey and a horse to make a mule
Why are plasmids so widely used in recombinant DNA studies because they canbe used to transform bacteria
Why is inserting plasmids in yeast more complex than inserting them into bacteria yeasts are prokaryotes
A plant cell is successfully transformed if the cell integrates foreign DNA into one of it’s chromosomes
Which of the following is a pair of transgenic organisms a hybridized peach tree and a polyploid banana tree
Dolly is a sheep produced by cloning. Which of the following is a difference between Dolly and animals produced by sexual reproduction the source of Dolly’s DNA is a single cell takenfrom an adult individual
What kind of technique do scientists use to make transgenic organisms genetic engineering
What is an advantage of using transgenic bacteria to produce human proteins genetic engineering
To produce transgenic bacteria that make insulin, which of the steps listed below would a scientist do FIRST cut out the insulin gene from human DNA
Which of the following is made with recombinant DNA technology and helps farmers use less insecticide Bt cotton
When the gene for Bt toxin is inserted into corn, farmers can use less pesticide
GM crops that produce a higher yield per plant than unmodified crops would produce more food for the same acreage
What has been an advantage of producing transgenic plants increasing the food supply
Which of the following is a direct benefit to farmers planting Bt corn farmers can decrease their use of herbicides
The purpose of gene therapy is to remove mutations from genes
Gene therapy is successful if the replacement gene is successfully spliced to viral DNA
What process can prospective parents use to determine if they are carrying recessive alleles for disease genetic testing
The use of DNA fingerprinting relies on the fact that no two people, except identical twins, have exactly the same DNA
What conclusion CANNOT be made from two DNA fingerprints that show identical patterns of bands the DNA in both fingerprints almost cdertainly came from the same person
Which of the following correctly describes how DNA fingerprinting of certain genes can be used to establish familial relationships Mitochondrial DNA is used to look for links from a son to his mother and the Y chromosome is used to look for links to the father
Which of the following is true of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act it protects Americans against being treated differently by employers or insurance companies based on their genetic information
Which of the following is true of patents in biotechnology a scientist who holds a patent catent can demand high fees that block others from doing certain research
One reason farmers often choose GM crops over non-GM crops because GM crops more productive
Which of the following findings, if true, would support CRITICS of GM crops Bt corn reduces the populations of bees needed to pollinate the plants
Which of the following findings, if true, would support an argument IN FAVOR of GM foods farmers who grow GM crops have much higher yields that farmers growing unmodified crops
Which statement below might be used by someone who is arguing against the use of GM crops the patents for the seeds of GM crops are held by big companies, which may raise prices and force small farmers out of business
Darwin noticed that many organisms seemed well suited to surviving in the environments which they lived
The species of finches that Charles Darwin found on different Galapagos Islands varied in certain structural adaptations. One of the most significant adaptations that Darwin noted was the birds different-shaped beaks
Based on the adaptations Charles Darwin observed in finches and tortoises in the Galapagos, he wondered if species living on different islands had once been members of the same species
Which of the following ideas was NOT part of Darwins contribution to science inheritance of acquired charactersistics
On the Galapagos Islands, Charles Darwin observed species similar to mainland South American species
Which of the following ideas is supported by Darwin’s observations of local variation among tortoises in the Galapagos Islands adaptation
Darwin first began to formulate his concept of evolution by natural selection after observing patterns among the geographical location of certain species
People of Charles Darwin’s time understood that fossils were preserved remains of ancient organisms
In the 1800’s, Charles Lyell emphasized that past geological events must be explained in terms of processes observable today
One scientist who attempted to explain how rock formations, such as rock layers, form and change over time was James Hutton
James Hutton’s and Charles Lyell’s work was important to Darwin because these scientists suggested that Earth was old enough for evolution to have occurred
What did Charles Darwin learn from reading the work of James Hutton and Charles Lyell Gradual change operating over long periods of time can result in dramatic changes
Jean-Baptiste Lamarack proposed that organisms have an innate tendency toward complexity and perfection
Which is a major concept included in Lamarack’s evoluntionary hypothesis body structures can change according to the actions of the organism
Lamarck’s ideas about evolution include the concept that differences among the traits of organisms arise as a result of the actions of organisms as they use or fail to use body structures
In an experiment, suppose that the wings of fruit flies were clipped short for fifty generations. The fifty-first generation emerged with normal-length wings. This observation would tend to disprove that idea that evolution is based on inheritance of acquired characteristics
The economist Thomas Malthus suggested that without certain checks on population size, there would soon be insufficient food for the growing human population
The idea that events like war, starvation and disease could prevent the endless growth of human populations was presented by Thomas Malthus
Darwin realized that the economist Malthus’s theory of population control could be generalized to any population of organisms
When a dairy farmer chooses to breed the cows that give the most milk in the herd, the farmers are following the principal of artificial selection
When farmers select animals or plants to use for breeding, they look for natural variations that are present in a species
When a farmer breeds only his or her best livestock, the process involved is artificial selection
According to Darwin’s theory of natural selection, individuals who survive are the ones best adapted for their environment. Their survival is due to the possession of inherited adaptations that maximize fitness
Each of the following is a condition necessary for natural selection to occur EXCEPT population size is very large
Which statement about the members of a population that live long enough to reproduce is consistent with the theory of evolution by natural slection they are the ones that are best adapted to survive in their environment
According to Darwin’s theory of natural selection, the individuals that tend to survive are those that have variations best suited to environmental conditions
Which of the following phrases best describes the results of natural selection changes in the inherited characteristics of a population over time
The principal of common descent helps explain why birds and reptiles share a number of inherited characteristics
The hypothesis that all species are descended from common ancestors was proposed by Charles Darwin
Darwin’s concept of natural selection was NOT influenced by knowledge about the structure of DNA
Biogeography is the study of where species and their ancestors live
The number and location of bones of many fossil vertebrates are similar to those in living vertebrates. This is evidence in support of which of the following concepts common descent
Modern sea star larvae resemble some primitive vertebrate larvae. This similarity may suggest that primitive vertebrates share a common ancestor with sea stars
Molecular evidence in support of natural selection includes the nearly universal genetic code
Similar patterns of embryological development in different but related organisms are responsible for the formation of homologous structures
According to the Grants’ investigation of Galapagos finches, what happened to the beaks of finches beaks became smaller when they mirgrated
Which characteristic of Galapagos finches helped the Grants show the results of natural selection the size and shape of their beaks
What principle does the Grants’ investigation of finch adaptation Galapagos Islands best support natural selection
The genes carried by all members of a particular population make up the populations gene pool
Natural selection acts directly on phenotypes
Sexual reproduction among members of population results in no changes in the allele frequences in the gene pool
A change in the genetic material of a cell is called a mutation
Three sources of genetic variation are sexual reproduction, lateral gene transfer and mutations
In organisms that reproduce sexually, most variation that can be inherited is due to gene recombination during sexual reporduction
Genetic recombination includes the independent movement of chromosomes during meiosis as well as crossing-over
The genetic recombination that occurs as part of sexual reporduction does not change the gene pool’s allele frequencies
A single-gene trait that has two alleles and that shows a simple dominant-recessive pattern will result in two phenotypes
An example of a single -gene trait is sickle cell anemia in humans
The number of phenotypes produced for a given trait depends upon the number of genes that control the trait
The frequency of phoenotypes for a typical polygenic trait is most often illustrated as a bell-shaped curve
Compared to a polygenic trait, a single-gene trait tends to have fewer phenotypes
A polygenic trait can have many possible genotypes, producing many possible phoenotypes
If a mutation introduces a new skin color in a lizard population, which factor might determine whether the frequency of a new allele will increase whether the mutation makes some lizards more fit for their environment than other lizards
In genetic drift, the alle frequencies in a gene pool change because of chance
Which of the following events do biologists consider a random change genetic drift
Genetic drift tends to occur in population that are small
The type of genetic drift that follows the colonization of a new habitat by a small group individuals is called the founder effect
One similarity between natural selection and genetic drift is that both events involve a change in a population;s allele frequencies
One of the conditions required to maintain genetic equilibrium is no immigration or emigration
The genetic equilibrium of a population can be disturbed by each of the following EXCEPT a large population size
The allele frequencies of a population are more likely to be disturbed if mating is not random
According to Hardy-Weinberg principle, genetic equilibrium would be more likely in a population of mice if no natural selection takes place
Which factor would most likely disrupt genetic equilibrium in a large population mating that is not random
The separation of populations by barriers such as rivers, mountains, or bodies of water is called geographic isolation
A factor that is necessary for the formation of a new species is geographic barriers
Which of the following statements defines the members of a species they mate and produce offspring
What situation might develop in a population having some plants whose flowers open at midday and other plants whose flowers open late in the day temporal isolation
The geographic isolation of two populations of a species tends to increase differences between their gene pools because it prevents interbreeding between the populations
Although they often live in the same habitat, the American toad breeds earlier in the spring than Fowler’s toad does. What can be inferred from this information the two species do not interbreed because of temporal isolation
Which is the first step that occurred in the speciation of Galapagos finches founders arrived
The Galapagos finch species are an excellent example of speciation
What did the Grants learn about mate choice from Galapagos finches finches prefer mates with beaks similar in size to their own
In Grants’ study of the Galapagos finches, what process was encouraged by ecological competition during the dry season directional selection
Species Y and Z have very different proteins and genes. What is most likely true about these two species? Species Y evolved for a long time separately from Species Z
Which of the following can produce a duplicate gene crossing-over during mmeiosis
What do Hox genes control patterns of embryological development
One reason common names are not useful to biologists is that they can apply to more than one animal
One goal of scientists is to assign every organism a universally accepted name according to the system known as binomial nomenclature
For many species, there are often regional differences in their common names
At any level of organization, groups that have biological meaning are referred to as taxa
To be useful, a scientific name has to refer to a single species
According to the rules of binomial nomenclature, which of the terms is capitalized the species name onky
Based on their names, you know that the baboons Paio annubis and Paio cynocephalus do NOT belong to the same species
How do binomial, or two-part, names compare with early versions of scientific names they tend to be shorter
The second part of a scientific name is unique to each species in its genus
Often, the second part of a scientific name is a description of a trait or habitat
Before Linnaeus, scientific names were problematic because they were not standardized
In Linnaeus’s system of classification, how many levels are there seven
A genus is composed of a number of similar phyla
Several different classes make up a phylum
Which are the two highest level tax in the Linnaean system phylum and kingdom
Anumals that are warm-blooded, have body hair, and produce milk for their young are grouped in the class mammalia
The only “natural” taxa in Linnaeus’s system is the species
Traditional classifications tended to take into account primarily visible similarities and differences
In evolutionary classification, a monophyletic group includes one species and all its ancestors
The grouping of organisms based on their common descent is called evolutuinary classification
In an evolutionary classification scheme, species within one genus should be more closely related to one another than they are to species in other genera
What kind of analysis focuses on the order in which derived characters appeared in organisms cladistic analysis
In biology, a trait that arose in an ancestor and is passed along to its descendants is referred to as a derived character
In contrast to Linnaran taxonomy, cladistic analysis considers only which kind of traits, or characters for analysis derived characters
An analysis of derived characters is used to generate a cladogram
What does a cladistic analysis show about organisms the relative degrees of relatedness among lineages
Similar DNA sequences in genes can be evidence of common ancestry
What do all organisms have in common they all use DNA to pass on information
What is true about dissimilar organisms such as a cow and a yeast their degree of relatedness can be estimated from their genes
Which of the following techniques can scientists use to determine how DNA of several species might indicate the species are related cladistic analysis
What does the presence of similar DNA sequences in the genes in very dissimilar organisms imply the organisms share a common ancestor
What cell structures in eukaryotic cells contain DNA that can be used to determine evolutionary relationships nuclei and mitochondria
All organisms in the kingdoms Protista, Plantae, Fungi and Amimalia are eukaryoyes
Which kingdom contains heterotrophs with cell walls of chitin fungi
Which kingdom in the six-kingdom system classification was once grouped with plants fungi
The domain that corresponds to the kingdom Eubacteria is bacteria
The domain that contains unicellular organisms that live in extreme environments is archaea
The two domains composed of only unicellular organisms are eubacteria and archaea
Three-domain system arose when scientists found that Eubacteris and Archaebacteria were more like eukaryotes
The three-domain system recognizes fundamental differences between two groups of prokaryotes
What is thought to be true about the three domains of living things they diverged from a common ancestor before the evolution of the main groups of eukaryotes.
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