Reducing the disruptive effects of Earth’s atmosphere to obtain sharper images
Another partial solution is to make improvements to the observatories themselves. More ventilation traps can be added along the observatory walls so the atmosphere around the telescope is the lapp temperature as the outside air. Laminar atmosphere currents can besides be blown across the surface of the mirror to minimize turbulence.
The Earth ’ south atmosphere consists of layers of air at different temperatures that interact and cause large-scale movements of atmosphere masses ( referred to as turbulence by scientists ). For astronomers, turbulence is damaging to their work as it disrupts the trajectory of abstemious rays. This causes stars in the sky to twinkle and telescope images to be distorted .
A dim-witted means to minimize the effects of this inconvenient phenomenon is to build astronomic observatories at high elevations so that the telescopes only peer through the upper levels of the terrestrial atmosphere. The images obtained in this manner will be up to ten times better than those obtained at ocean grade .
Another method, albeit much more radical, is to install telescopes in space where the atmosphere no long has any consequence on astronomic observations. It is for this rationality that today ’ sulfur astronomers are launching space telescopes – like Hubble, FUSE and MOST – into orbit .
The beginning research into resolving the problem of image distortion related to atmospheric turbulence was conducted in 1902 by the german doctor Karl Strehl, who proposed a method of evaluating the image timbre produced by ocular systems .
In 1941, the soviet mathematician Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov made respective breakthroughs into the study of turbulence. His work would subsequently be integrated into atmospheric models used to correct distortions affecting astronomic images .
In 1953, the american astronomer Horace Welcome Babcock invented adaptive optics, a summons that corrects image distortions caused by the mundane air. The proficiency consists of taking a sample of the light received by the telescope and calculating its degree of distortion. Deformable mirrors are then used to redirect the light rays and produce a corrected picture. The proposal was promise, but Babcock was not able to construct his system for technical reasons .
In 1957, the american doctor Robert B. Leighton of the California Institute of Technology succeeded in reducing atmosphere-induced persona distortions using the 1.5-metre telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory in California. His proficiency consisted of inclining the telescope ’ second secondary mirror several times per second gear. In so doing, he managed to obtain the best images ever recorded of Jupiter and Saturn .
In that same year, the soviet physicist Vladimir Pavlovich Linnik published an article in which he proposed that an artificial “ guide star ” could be created by pointing a laser at the sky and targeting its focal point in the upper atmosphere to agitate gas molecules .
If an adaptive optics system uses a natural “ guide headliner ”, it must be bright enough compared to the celestial object of concern to provide adequate light for the telescope ’ second detector. The usher star topology and the study object must besides appear sufficiently conclusion in the flip. It is not always slowly to find a headliner that fulfills these criteria, therefore the idea of creating an artificial guide leading. Linnik ’ s proposal was rotatory, but unfortunately remained obscure to the external scientific residential district until 1992 when his article was finally translated into English.
In 1970, the American engineer W. Thomas Cathey and his collaborators were the first base to experimentally demonstrate an adaptive optics system that operated in real time .
Three years former, in 1973, another American engineer, John W. Hardy, built the beginning adaptive optics system intended for astronomy. primitively designed to detect soviet military satellites, the system used a deformable mirror. Astronomers took advantage of the proficiency and new adaptive optics systems began to appear .
In 1977, the american physicist Andrew Buffington developed the first system to use a segment mirror. Each of the six segments is controlled by a piston that could adjust the inclination .
In 1981, the american physicist Robert Q. Fugate and his team began to work on a system that would use a laser to generate a usher asterisk – the idea originally proposed by Linnik in 1957. The first tests were performed in 1983 and 1984. Since then, several adaptive optics systems have been equipped with a laser that operates on this rationale .
In 1991, the american army been declassifying their confidential oeuvre on adaptive optics. Upon accessing the documents, the astronomy community realized that they had already designed and constructed more potent and less dearly-won systems than those of the military .
As of 2005, 18 observatories and 26 big telescopes are equipped with image correction systems. These systems are now considered as standard equipment for big observatories .
René Racine talks about adaptive optics.
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ASTROLab/Mont-Mégantic National Park adaptive optics is now beginning to have an affect in ophthalmology. If you want to study the retina, the trope obtained is by and large cloudy because there is an aqueous humor [ secretion ] that messes things up. adaptive optics systems now exist that allow much more accurate diagnoses of retina than was possible only a few years ago. In the relatively near future, we may have corrective glasses that are not like the even credit card ones, but can alternatively deform to correct for turbulence ( in the eye and in the atmosphere ). There is no reason that we will not be able to read a newspaper about 50 metres away with such devices. thus your eyes will have a much sharper resolution than what you have immediately because your eye is not arrant and the atmosphere distorts images. It represents an application – a hardheaded habit – for space-related technology, but one that comes from astronomy. back to Top